Birth of the Moon


The Earth, over its 4.5 billion year history,
has been pummeled by asteroids. Eroded by wind and rain. Covered over with flowing lava. Wrinkled and gouged by shifts in its crust. Most traces of its distant past have long
since been destroyed. But there is a place where clues to the early
history of our planet are still largely intact. The moon. Scientists have been reconstructing its history
by scouring its surface, mapping its mountains and craters, and probing its interior regions. What are they learning about our own planet’s
beginnings, by going back in time, to the mysterious Birth of the Moon. The space age made possible rockets with enough
power to blast humans and their life support systems into orbit. More than three hundred manned space flights
have shown that humans can live and explore beyond our Earth. None of these missions have done more to shape
our connection to the cosmos, and define who were are, than the fabled flights of Apollo.
But not for reasons you might think. We sent astronauts to the moon as a symbol
of confidence in the face of the great cold war struggle. Many hoped that would lead to
further journeys to Mars, and to an age of living in space. Those goals proved too grand in the face of
all the preoccupations, turbulence, and change that would crash onto our own planetary shores. Landing on the moon was a giant leap for mankind.
But it’s what the astronauts picked up from the lunar surface that may turn out to be
Apollo’s greatest legacy. When the astronauts of Apollo stepped out
of their landing craft, they entered a world draped in fine sticky dust, strewn with rocks,
and pocked with craters. They walked and rambled about, picking up
rocks – 382 kilograms worth — that they packed for the return flight. Back in earth-bound labs, scientists went
to work probing the rocks for clues to one of the most vexing questions in all of science. Where did the moon come from? The answer promised to shed light on an even
grander question. Where did Earth come from? And how did it evolve into the planet we know
today? The apollo rocks have brought us closer to
the answer, but basic mysteries still remain. The moon orbits Earth at an average distance
of 384,400 kilometers. It’s relatively small, with less than one percent the surface area,
two percent the volume, and one percent the mass of Earth. With no atmosphere, temperatures range, in
Celsius, from -233 degrees at night to 123 degrees during the day. As the brightest object in the night sky,
the moon has guided people for millennia… by defining the rhythms of life and animating
our myths. The nature of the moon began to come into
focus four centuries ago. Galileo Galilei had heard of an instrument
built by Dutch opticians capable of “seeing faraway things as though nearby.” Galileo, in many ways the first modern scientist,
saw this new instrument as a tool to help settle a long standing question. What was the nature of the heavens, and how
did the world of men fit within it? To some philosophers, the moon was a perfect,
crystalline sphere of divine substance, free of Earth’s imperfections. Galileo, with his telescope, saw a more familiar
reality. He noted mountains and valleys on the moon,
features like those of Earth. Flash forward to the modern age of lunar studies.
1959 saw the first in a fleet of probes launched by the Soviet Union and the United States
to shoot closeup pictures, take readings, and crash onto its surface. We learned then just how different the moon
is from Earth, with its cratered and dessicated landscapes, and lack of a magnetic field.
That intensified a debate about the moon’s origin that went back centuries. The so-called fission theory, championed by
George Howard Darwin, son of Charles Darwin, held that the moon was once part of the Earth,
cast off by the rapid spin of its young parent. For proof, look no farther than the Pacific
Ocean, a giant hole in the Earth’s surface. Then there’s the capture theory, which holds
that the moon was a wayward object that floated through our solar system and was pulled into
orbit by Earth’s gravity. A third idea came from the American astronomer
Thomas Jefferson Jackson See, also known for his attacks on Einstein’s theories and for
charges of plagerism that were leveled at him. He suggested that the Moon formed near Earth
and gradually fell under its gravitational spell. In that case, the moon should be a
mini-Earth, which we now know it’s not. The astronauts of Apollo lifted off on a series
of missions to get a close up look at the moon and perhaps settle the debate. Because there’s no atmosphere there, the astronauts
entered landscapes that are nearly frozen in time. They could scour the lunar surface
for evidence of events going back almost to the time of its birth. Indeed, eons of impacts had opened up the
Moon’s interior, leaving a wealth of information strewn about their landing sites. Scientists had already noticed that some large
old craters were surrounded by concentric rings. You can see one of the most pronounced
examples in this image of the Mare Orientale, captured recently by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance
Orbiter, or LRO. The colors show differences in elevation. The old view was that the impact had melted
the rock below. A newer view held that the impactor had actually splashed down on a molten
surface. That gave rise to the radical notion that,
early in its history, the moon’s surface was covered in a vast ocean of magma. When the astronauts arrived, they found relatively
light rocks known as anorthosites. Their presence suggested that heavier material had sunk toward
the moon’s interior, forcing lighter material to the surface. The rocks they brought back were found to
be strikingly similar to those on Earth, in part because they share forms of oxygen, called
isotopes, that scientists regard as “blood types” for solar system bodies. Then there was this. The moon appeared to
be completely, utterly, dry, with no evidence that water was ever present on its surface. Not long after the last Apollo mission went
into the history books, this initial evidence coalesced into a radical new idea first presented
in 1974 by the scientist and artist, William Hartmann. His theory of the moon’s formation is played
out in this contemporary scenario. Sharing an orbit with Earth was a Mars-sized
body called Theia, named for a Titan in Greek myth who gave birth to the moon goddess, Selene. Its orbit became unstable and it headed in
Earth’s direction. Theia hit at an oblique angle, causing the
Earth to spin faster and debris from both Theia and the Earth to fly into orbit. When the dust settled, the debris began to
coalesced in Earth orbit, forming the Moon. By then, volatile compounds like water had
evaporated. The moon, then, comes primarily from the mantles
of the Earth and Theia. That’s why overall the moon is lighter, or less dense, than Earth. It has a core of solid iron like Earth, but
this core is relatively small compared to ours. From this violent beginning, the moon gradually
coole, and the magma that lined its surface hardened into a crust. Yet it was still subject
to intense bombardment in the chaotic environment of the early solar system. You can see what a battering the moon has
taken in this global elevation map compiled by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Its surface
has been hammered by large impacts at every stage in its history. The Apollo astronauts encountered a secondary
effect of all the impacts, rocks formed in the crucible of widespread volcanism. On Earth, volcanic eruptions are often powered
by water, heated and pressurized by friction from the movement of immense tectonic plates.
Neither factor exists on the Moon. Instead, lunar volcanoes are tied to impacts
forceful enough to melt the surface and release material from the hot interior. In the lower
gravity of the Moon, volcanic eruptions would have splattered high above the landscape. Molten rock then flowed out in thin smooth
layers that reached far from its source. That’s how the mare regions that cover about
one-sixth of the entire lunar surface were formed. These immense volcanic basins are
thought to date back to period of large and violent impacts from three to four billion
years ago. The materials brought up by these impacts
are made up of heavier compounds that would have initially sunk into the magma ocean. Scientists have also detected volcanic residues
in recent impacts that have been imaged by LRO cameras. This is the Aristarchus Plateau with a mysterious
channel cut by flowing lava and punctuated by two immense craters. One was created by
an impact just 450 million years ago. Along its walls are blocks of rock from the
lunar crust that fragmented in the impact. Scientists detected volcanic glass-like deposits
that are the legacy of ancient eruptions. Then there’s the strange landscape of the
Tycho crater, from an impact about 100 million years ago. Its central peak, rising two kilometers
above the crater floor, may be material blasted out by the impact. The same is true for a 120-meter wide boulder
that sits on the summit. Around it, and on it, scientists see evidence of rock that was
melted in the heat of the impact itself. Since its birth, the moon has exerted a constant
and powerful influence on Earth. Gravitational drag from the moon slows Earth’s rotation
by 2.3 milliseconds per century… while causing the moon to drift away at a rate of 3.8 centimeters
per year. The moon’s tidal pull acts to stabilize Earth’s
rotation about its axis, and the tides help promote the formation of ocean currents that
shape our climate. To think that the root of this intimate relationship
between Earth and the moon stems from a violent collision so long ago. However, the giant impact theory is not universally
accepted. For one thing, there’s the issue of water. The dryness of the moon is consistent with
the giant impact theory, which predicts that water and other volatile compounds would have
evaporated out of the lunar debris cloud. But the moon may not be so dry after all. In 1998, the unmanned Lunar Prospector began
an ambitious mission to map the lunar surface with an instrument called a gamma-ray spectrometer. The data showed that hydrogen is spread widely
across the poles of the moon. If it’s from ice, millions of tons of water could well
be embedded in the soil there. It turns out there are places where water
can exist on the moon, where the sun never shines. Polar craters, forever in shadow,
could shelter significant quantities of ice against solar radiation. Prospecting for ice, the LCross probe arrived
at the moon in 2009 aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, on a collision course with the 97
kilometer wide Cabeus Crater at the south pole. Seconds after it slammed into the crater,
a trailing probe detected a tenuous cloud rising up from the crater. In the cloud was a mix of carbon monoxide,
ammonia, methane, and more. 5.6% of the crater floor is water ice, a higher concentration
than some areas on Earth. The presence of water is good news for explorers
who dream of one day spending quality time on the moon. But how did it get there? It might have been delivered by comets striking
the moon over the eons. There’s another explanation, one that emerged
from rocks gathered by the Apollo astronauts. The samples are graced with tiny glassy globules,
minerals melted in the crucible of lunar volcanism. Analysing these Apollo rocks with new techniques,
several teams of scientists have found a compound called hydroxyl. It’s H2O, with only one H,
and could be turned into water, say, for a moon base. Much of what the moon had was likely lost
to space from impacts. Tiny residues might remain in polar craters. The rest, still locked
up inside the moon, might be enough to cover its surface in a layer of water one meter
deep. Does the presence of water inside the moon
send us back to square one on its formation? It might not, if it had been carried in by
comets in the moon’s early days. One new study suggests that the giant impact
scenario is more complex than we thought. It holds that another, much smaller body formed
alongside the moon and eventually merged with it. The impact literally rearranged the moon’s
interior, pushing molten magma onto the near side, while adding an extra layer of crust
to the far side. That explains the lopsided topography of the
moon, the dark lava basins on the near side, and the highlands of the far side. Human geologists with a network of seismographs
could confirm this idea. The next best thing is a mission called Grail, a pair of spacecraft
orbiting the moon in unison. Such a mission has already performed a kind
of planetary CAT-scan of Earth. By measuring subtle changes in the distance between the
craft, scientists discerned variations in Earth’s gravity. The data resulted in a map of ground water
all around the planet. Flying around the moon, the Grail pair could
provide new details about the size and composition of the Moon’s core, adding support for the
giant impact theory, or sending science in a whole new direction. The intimate connection between the Earth
and the moon appears to trace back to their earliest times. If that’s true, then the formation of this
desolate world can tell us about our own… A blue green world with a companion reflective
enough to light up the night. ?? ?? ?? ?? 7

100 thoughts on “Birth of the Moon

  1. Narrated by “Kingseeker Frampt”, whom later will accept/eat your offerings of Moonstone for Green Titanite Shards.

  2. Lack of a magnetic Field huh? 2012 more like 1850. were did u get ur statistics?

  3. This video is the reason why I love taking photos & videos of the moon ❤

  4. I believe the moon was towed here by a Advance alien technology to settle things down here so it could implanted by us. Sorry God. I hope that’s ok I don’t want to offend you.

  5. PortA-guise are the 😈 that invade others by deceitful means not going through the proper channels of communication protocols.

  6. BEAUTIFUL SISTER MOON WOW AMAZING VIDEO UPLOAD INDEED MOST INTERESTING INFORMATION YESS THUMBS UP MUST WATCH . THANKYOU MY DEAR LOVELY FRIEND FOR SHARING WONDERFUL MAGICAL MOMENTS SpaceRip . SUPERRR DOOPERRR BRAVO XD . WARM GREETING,S FROM ENGLAND MY DEAREST AWESOME FRIENDS & FAMILY . WISHING YOU ALL A BLESSED FRUITFUL NIGHT AHEAD . PEACE & LOVE BLESSING,S . NIGHT NIGHT WITH NICE SOUND SLEEP . BIG WARM HUGS & SWEET BUTTERFLY KISSES . XXXXXXX

  7. Funny, at 4:46 narrator claims the moon has less than 1% the surface area of the earth. I thought that sounded rather small by comparison. I googled that stat and found 7.4%. I didn't bother verifying the following comparisons for Volume and Mass.

  8. I was born White, Did I know this at Birth? Answer Me Now, and you know the Moon, The Earth, The Sun, Wow!!!!!!

  9. Trust me we can't go to the moon or Mars . Humans love colonising . It's in our nature if we could go there you can bet your life on it we would be there already . It's all bullshit. A grand ferrytale but a ferry tale none the less. They aren't sending humans anywhere because it's harder to fool people today than 60 years ago . But I like these ferry tales.

  10. Such hate couple of years later and the hate is worse than ever do any of you realize that man's destiny is to destroy itself or not ..maybe we should love one another and ascend to the next parallel dimension. I believe the latter due to the fact of the lies and deception of history going back to the biblical stories and the once holy bible that has been edited by the false PAPALCY. Beware of Petros Romanus

  11. The moon landings have been debunked.
    We know they are fake. Like a puppet on a string…

  12. THE PLANET AND MOON ARE CAME FROM THE BIRTH OF THE SUN CALLED BLACKHOLE,, EVERY BIRTH OF PLANET OR BLACKHOLE THERE IS A TAIL AND THAT IS THE MOON, THE 1ST PROCEDURE HOW TO BUILT A PLANET,, THE PLANET ARE BURNING FIRST SAME OF THE MOON THE PUROOSE ARE TO SWALLOWING THE DUST THEN AFTER A YEAR THIS SUN WILL TURN IN TO DUST OR SOIL OR THE FIRE ARE DIE IN THE SURFACE AND THE BLACKHOLE ARE CONTINUE SPINNING IN THE INSIDE OF THE SOIL TO SWALLOW MORE DUST UNTIL 6000 YEARS AND AFTER 6000 YEARS THAT IS TOTALY PLANET HAVE A MOON BUT THE MOON ARE THE 1ST BUILT BEFORE THE PLANET BECAUSE THE MOON HAVE A SMALL BLACK HOLE AND AFTER THIS ARE FULLY DUST MOON ARE STOP SPINNING BECAUSE THE SOIL ARE HEAVY AND CANNOT DRIVE

  13. The Apollo missions to the moon did in, fact, settle the debate about the birth of the moon. Watch the video of the Apollo 8 crew and listen very carefully to what they've read from outer space.

  14. What's in This video is atheism on steroids. I can't believe that these kinds of delusions combined with hearsay can be called scientific! There is a number of questionable statements in this video; So was Theia the imaginary asteroid that killed all the dinosaurs? or was that a different Theia? Which one of the two Theia killed the dinosaurs, and the one which gave birth to the moon?
    How did the debris from Theia, manage to escape from the earth gravitational pull, and into space, then suddenly caught by earth gravity right spot where the moon is, and the debris from Theia formed the moon? {Sounds to me that debris of Theia applied their brakes at the right time} I have to say WOW to that accident. LOL
    So the bottom line is this. Imaginary Theia collided with planet earth, which, tuned the earth speed so day and night can never fail to follow each other, then the debris from Theia escaped earth's gravity, caught by the forces of earth gravity out in space, right where the moon is, and the debris became the moon. How bloody convenient is that I have to say!
    SpaceRip, What kind of illegal stuff are you lot on?

  15. When you're ripping of videos, leave the sound control on the mixing desk alone, you twat.

  16. You don't know where the moon come from or how it was made why make up crap.🔺️🔺️🔺️🔺️🔺️

  17. I believe the geophysical fission  theory of Sir Howard Darwin , cause Nasa's new horizon pictures of the Ultima Thule seems to be the birth of a new planet and its moon stuck together getting bigger and bigger collecting debris in the Kuiper Belt , well, in 8 billion years they will seperate by centrifugal force and as the Milky way expands , this new bigger seperated ''Ultima Thule'' will be orbiting the expanding engulfing sun, and will replace us !!!!…..but again who am I, berely past high school….ok,ok Mr. comment smaty pants, I will go back …

  18. Yay I finally been answered.I always wondered how the moon was made.

  19. a good book series to read if you're into Scifi is the Giants series by James Hogan, in it the moon is a fragment of a planet that existed between Mars and Jupiter,destroyed by an alien race long ago, then was pulled into our orbit

  20. The earth broke off from the sun. The moon is 1/13 of the earth, broken-off while it was cooling.

  21. BIRTH OF THE MOON ARE THE SAME OF THE PLANET THE BIRTH OF SUN ARE THE BLACKHOLE AND THE BLACKHOLE HAVE A TALE AND THAT IS MINI BLACKHOLE AS A MOON,,, AFTER THE BIRTH OF BLACKHOLE THIS 2 BLACKHOLE BIG AND SMALL ARE BURNING LIKE A SUN THE AFTER A YEARS THIS ARE TURN INTO HOT PLANET THEN AFTER 6000 YEARS THIS ARE TOTALY PLANET AND MOON THEN AFTER 1000N YEARS AGAIN THIS ARE READY TO PUT A LIFE OR GROWING A LIFE CAME FROM THE SOIL

  22. God is amazing..without the moon we wouldnt exist..Everything is fine tuned for life ✝️✝️

  23. The Bible say In the beginning God created the heavens and Earth

  24. Human and organisms are ruled by how much time they have. The cosmos are ruled by how much matter it has… And will run out one day.

  25. They cannot bring themselves to admit they have not a clue so they made this crap up.

  26. Where do they get these dates from? Take David Attenborough for example. In the documentaries he Narrates, he keeps saying, this is 200million years old, that is 20 million years old, that is 60,000 years old.that took place 1billion years ago.etc etc. Also, David stood in a beautiful green forest full of trees and all different kind of vegetations, and he said, 2million years ago the trees and vegetation appeared. The problem was David didn't say where the seeds came from without the trees.
    In fact, the earth is thousands of years old, not billions or millions of years old!

  27. Many of the materials found on the moon surface could've landed there from outer space.
    As a matter of fact, the moon is just a few thousands of years old, and not billions of years old.
    In Genesis1 The moon and the Sun were created on the 4th day. That means the light which lit up the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd day of creation was from God own glory. Rev21:23 supports that fact. That means that the Sun and moon are roughly about 6,000 years old and not billions of years old.
    Which raises a much more vital Questions. "The Sun isn't a star", it's a Sun. The stars do shine, but the starlight isn't designed to support life as the light from the Sun does on earth. In other words, the Earth-Sun was designed to support a living planet. But the stars are surrounded by piles of dead planets. So my theory is, that the Stars do not produce the same kind of light as the earth Sun does.
    So, If the physicists and the scientists think that they have solved the universal mysteries I say to them that you haven't even yet begun to scratch the surface.

  28. I SEE THE MOON>>THE MOON SEES ME>>>GOD BLESS THE MOON>>>AND>>>GOD BLESS ME AMEN

  29. Can this clown learn the simple skill of getting to the fucking point???!!! The unnecessary BS made the video useless and boring!

  30. Notice how barly anybody gets really mean in the comments in space videos? People will debate their sides with the facts they know but if your mean then people will look at you like a fool, I like it, it's real people just trying to discover more😂

  31. This documentary is so stupid that makes me believe that the word “science “ means b.s
    God created all. Nothing can happen by itself Do you know that our moon has special duties, such as taking care of plants and all greens. Not only that, the moon provides light at night time
    Just research and find out what happens to the vegetation on earth, if there was no moon.

  32. Is it because of the earth and the celestial object collide to form the moon?

  33. 4:44 Narration is wrong here. Surface of moon is about the size of Asia which much larger than 1% of earth surface.

  34. The people dislike videos when they do that like why do they watch the video like bruh 😡😡😡

  35. That's not how it the bible tells the story.. and who should we trust here. the word of God that has been proven to be the truth over and over again in so many ways you'd have to be in denial not to see it, or some scientist who can't even all agree on what they believe because the numbers change every other year, and they have no foundation for anything they say is truth.

  36. The moon was made during the time when the Earth had rings and it's own heavy bombardment brought lots of mass together destroying the rings creating gravity and then coalescing into spehrical shape after millions of rotations around it's partner Earth. 🤫

  37. I don't know if it's still there but NASA had a moon rock that you could touch. It was under glass and had a small area where you could put your hand in and touch it. So I can say I've touched the moon LOL

  38. What is mean by billion say lakh no not billion but I am from Nepel

  39. What a load of CGI crap research flat earth the truth will set you free

  40. 2019: Let's go to another country!
    3045: Let's go to another part of another planet!

  41. They dont know where it came fro. Our own history talks of a time before it was there. They cant show the entire far side of it

  42. Please tell me how for decades they say you can't see the dark side of the moon till apparently the Chinese sent a satalight there but this from yrs ago is saying things about the dark side of the Moon how can they say that when they can't see it and everyday we see the same side of the moon

  43. We are a planet therefore we are aliens so why look for more when there's enough here ,if they found more they'd only want to destroy and over take it to gain whatever from it like gold platinum etc ,if there's life out there they must know by now we are here so let them come to us

  44. To the south of the continent of alicrast lies an island known as loddos forged in the firece battle between martha the goddess of creation and khardess the godess of destruction lodoss has come to be known as the accursed island.

  45. THE BIRTH OF THE MOON ARE CAME FROM THE SUN THE SAME OF THE PLANET,, EVERY BIRTH OF THE SUN THIS ARE ALWAYS 2 ,1 IS BIG BLACK HOLE AND THE ITS TAIL OR LONG GRAVITY AND THAT LONG GRAVITY THAT IS A MOON AFTER THE GRAVITY ARE TURN INTO COLD THE LONG GRAVITY WILL TURN INTO ROUND THE SAME OF PLANET BLACK HOLE

  46. YouTube comments = proof that human beings are the stupidest creatures in the galaxy.

  47. I'm sorry but if we all pull out our globes out we would see How on earth can Mexico be half the size of the globe. On my Columbus scale it's atleast 4x bigger with no space for south America

  48. 11:29 "Its orbit became unstable". Isn't there a better way to explain this dynamic? The clumps of rock and debris that accumulated at the radius of the future Earth, formed a ring, or necklace of chunks all sharing the same orbit, when irregularities caused them, one by one, to collide with their co-orbital "partners" (competitors) until the last biggest shove-match between the Earth and the last-biggest winner of the whole series of similar shove-matches that condense the ring, or necklace of particles into a single big bad BEAD.

  49. Earth: WHAT ARE YOU DOING Planet that hit earth: I DON'T KNOW I CAN'T STOP AHHHH

  50. Moon: where did I come from mommy?
    Terra Earth: you see…when I was way younger there was a boy i met in a school prom…he approached me then we danced we were hyped up we got drunk and we found you in the car.
    Moon: and where is that boy today?
    Terra Earth: welp I consumed him the moment we found you. Couldn’t help it
    Moon: quoi?
    Terra Earth: it’s complicated

  51. 1:24 3d modeled crater???? wtf?

    3:30 where are the stars in the background? o.O
    and whats that with all the fast forward/slow motion wtf
    i knew kubrick is said to have made a fake moon landing
    wheres the real one please >.<
    hot interior???

    this is comedy

  52. None of the explanations given about how the moon was created, including this one, are watertight.

  53. I think, Thea that collided with Earth is actually the subterranean world of Agartha?

  54. I think, Thea that collided with Earth is actually the subterranean world of Agartha?

  55. wake up people QUESTION EVERYTHING YOU HAVE BEEN TAUGHT IN SCHOOL BECAUSE THEY LIED TO YOU

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