Camp Literature League: The Republic (Book Review)



hello and welcome to camp let Richer lake my name is Chad Horner and today I will be talking about plato's book titled the Republic but first I would like to ask what would it be like to have a philosopher king rule the worldé the athenian philosopher Plato believed that having just such a king as this was the only true way to gain happiness he was born in 427 BC in Athens Greece he died and 347 BC at the age of earing historians don't know much if I played whose early life but they do know he came from a wealthy family and that he most likely had two brothers and a sister he grew up in Athens and was taught by the best Greek instructors of that day being cheated in subjects like music gymnastics math grammar and philosophy he grew up during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta that lasted 27 years as a young adult he would have likely served in the Athenian army even though Athens eventually lost the war as he grew older he became much more interested in academics and philosophy he became a follower and student of the great scholar Socrates Socrates would often hold conversations with his students about different aspects of politics and life then they were break down the problem and come up with several theories on the subject Socrates a method of teaching his students became the foundation of Plato's future work called dialogues in 399 Socrates was killed by the leaders of Athens for corrupting the youth are not acknowledging the gods of Athens after this Plato began traveling the world and writing he travelled the Mediterranean region for the next 12 years I'm visited places like Italy Egypt and North Africa he began writing in a style called a dialogue a work featuring several characters discussing a topic by asking questions by writing in this style Vito could explore the different sides of the topic Island urges new ideas many of Cletus works feature Socrates of the main character most of what is known about Socrates philosophy comes from Plato's dialogues at around 40 years old he came back to Athens have become a school named the Academy there he and other scholars taught students various subjects including mathematics biology astronomy and of course philosophy Plato's most famous student was a boy named Aristotle he studied at the academy for over 20 years he joined when he was 17 and later taught at the academy he grew up to be a famous philosopher and scientist and eventually even being the teacher of Alexander the Great Plato wrote his most famous work the Republic when he was in his late 40s to early 50s it asks the question why should people do good things and also the question are people punished for doing bad things in the dialogue Socrates on his friend Logan are headed home from a festival when they encounter a group of their companions he convinced them to come over to Paulie Marcus's heists to socialize while Socrates is there he sees poly Marcus's elderly Fowler cephalus he is an old friend of his Socrates and cephalus began talking about the pros and cons of old age and this discussion eventually turns into the topic of justice this gets everyone's attention and cephalus decides to back off from the discussion he lets a son poly Marcus take over the debate with Socrates instead they begin discussing the nature of justice eventually talking about two things what justice actually means and whether justice is really a useful thing to have in the world Poli Marcus gets more and more convinced by Socrates ideas Socrates tries to prove to him high being just is better than being unjust and the benefits of it on someone soul just then another guest Thrasymachus interrupts he thinks justice is all about strength and power being something of a bully himself are not about goodness also lokan does not exactly agree with socrates ideas about the relationship between justice and good however and he tells a story about a powerful ring of invisibility that illustrates high if given the chance are usually just mom wouldn't hesitate to commit unjust acts if he only knew that nobody would know it after their Socrates decides that the best way to deal with the problem of justice is to invent an imaginary setting and that's what they do they concentrated on the main points of MU cities industry employment wealth health and other specific cornerstones of any setting they focus a lot on education first and then take a look at different forms of entertainment finally they decide that most poetry and music will be banned from the city by the rulers or guardians because it often focuses on negative things or what the guests considered unhealthy topics like love Plato considered love unhealthy because love is often only thought of as the romantic type sexually-based are not really considering the other person they decide to compare their city with the human soul dividing each into three parts the rational part the spirit apart and the appetite of or desiring part the rational part is the one that makes all calcula Tory decisions such as what is right or wrong and whether something is factual or non factual Plato says that the rational part is the part that should control the entire spirit as it makes logical choices based on all the information around it the spirit apart is the part of the soul in charge of the noble emotions such as the love of victory on Honor these can be good things but if given full control can be very destructive Plato says that the spirited part of the soul should be a toll to heed the rational heart but never be fully in control as anything rolled entirely by one's emotions is always extremely dangerous finally the appetite of or desiring part of the soul is the area that is responsible for all physical embodiments such as hunger thirst and sexual gratification they can help you stay alive for if we didn't have these cravings we would die but are the most dangerous part of the tripartite soul we cannot give in to these once every single time we feel them otherwise we will have no end of circuitry's tries to continue discussing justice but Glaucon interrupts and asks for Socrates to explain the role of women and children in this city Socrates tells him that women and children have equal rights just like men clida was one of the first people of his time period to stand for equal rights he thought that women should received the same education as men because that would make them just as good are protecting the city as men this was a very controversial subject at that time however and even Plato's own shouldn't Aristotle was adamant that a woman should be subject to her husband at all times Socrates denko's on depict the philosophers in charge drilling the city as Guardians he then decides to expand her education affects us and how the lack of it influences our strongly he explains us through this famous allegory of the Kiev showing how we can think that things are real when in fact they are not if we have gotten used to it and have known nothing else the illustration depicts prisoners who have left chained to the wall of a cave all their lives and of what shadows projected on the wall before them the shadows are their reality and Plato thought a philosopher was like one of the prisoners he was freed from the cave and finally able to understand but the shadows were not reality at all but merely a piece of the real world Peter thought that the human senses were an illusion much like the metaphors of the allegory of the Kiev and if we were to break free of our human senses by some miraculous chance we would find another realm that we could not understand because theoretically it will be the source of a higher realm than the one we had previously known they finished their discussion about philosophy and education on Socrates turns to the subject of different types of government he defines five types of governments and suggests that they are born out of each other in a type of cycle the five types of defined governments are aristocracy timocracy oligarchy democracy and tyranny aristocracy is a type of government where all the power is held by a nobility this type of government was used much in the Middle Ages a medieval time period in democracy all rulers are motivated by love of ambition or honor Clio says that the Democrats nature is mostly good as he is usually also motivated by obedience and respecting Authority on the free people oligarchy defines a small group of people in control of a country or organization democracy dictates of the entire state or population of a state can have a say and the political rulings often times three elected political representatives an tyranny is typically defined as cruel or oppressive government or role the original Greek term tyrant originally did not mean anything bad or referencing to bad character but Plato clearly saw the term as something negative to fully understand which type of government is best Socrates starts a discussion about desire the me and fuel behind Authority this topic leads them back to the topic of poetry and Socrates again condemns it saying this time that it is a distortion of reality the book ends with Socrates explaining a story about the myth of a which is about a man named her he dies and goes into the afterlife later reviving miraculously in order to tell about his experiences there Socrates point is that there must be an afterlife and the soul must be immortal he also illustrates how the choices we make an S life have consequences in the afterlife the book ends here I think the book is about how to find true happiness the solution as explained in the book is that we should control our passions or emotions not letting them control us things may feel good in the moment but anything bad done always backfires and ends up hurting us Socrates urges blogan and his friends try to live the best lives they can both in their earthly lives and in the afterlife most experts agree that Plato definitely influenced early Christianity his theory of forms was the basis of the Christian understanding of heaven as a perfect world I'm the earth as a physical and perfect imitation he also believed that there was such a thing as absolute truth an unchanging reality both modern day and early Christianity agree with this finally his idea of the division between the soul on the body the soul being a closer replica of goodness and truth agrees entirely with believes I think Plato's Republic is a very insightful philosophical work I recommend it to anyone interested for a while it can be long and complicated it shows different aspects of justice and eventually defines the overall concept of justice in a simple but effective way Plato's Republic has changed the way people think for good and for this reason I recommend it as a highly valuable work thank you for listening to this book review on Plato's Republic you

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