David Lawrence Young: The Jew in English Literature (complete)



in English settled in Jerusalem University nigga spent many years teaching English in history at universities and high schools throughout the country he has published about a dozen historical works and novels including different items mother sold to the devil so spell gunpowder treason and plot Will Shakespeare where was he of plots and passions and thousand years of devious deeds which I read recently and of guns and use of the first world war in Lucca and of guns Reventon Oh World War two Jewish preventable he's married many to family from down under and serves as I said okay thank you very much for coming it is cold and crisp evening and this I appreciate and when I was teaching first thing I ever said to my classes and turn the faces I could was turn your cell phones off yes and I would draw a cell phone on the board an equal sign and the hangman's like givers OGB and told the d pupils that if they didn't do that they would be defenestrated mother defenestrated it means being chucked out of the window it's no coincidence that in my classroom there are no bars on the window then tell him about the first famous defenestration which was anybody proud in Prague in 1618 when the King threw two of his ministers out of the window the second floor high of the castle in Prague which if some of you have seen was pretty high this was not such a grim experience they survived because underneath the window the large pile of horse manure the same Hebrew name okay so now from be more serious and talk about Jews in English literature drama to ask you tonight to scribble down some names connected to Jews and English literature I'm sure most of you would write something like Shakespeare and Shylock Dickens and Fagin maybe Chaucer and the Prioress is tale and maybe Marlo and the rich Jew of Malta interesting all of these examples are anti-semitic portraits well some would say that Shakespeare's famous speech in act 3 scene one hath not a Jew eyes have not a Jew hands organs dimensions etc is Daffy got a pro is the sensitive Pro Semitic speech showing the Jews like all other people however despite this there are several shining portraits in English literature of the Jew as a good person a veritable hero of them all they would like to this evening general plan of tonight's talk will be following an introduction to this topic and then move on to more or less chronological description of negative and positive mainly negative I'm afraid examples where Jews feature an English literature from the Middle Ages till today I will concentrate as you here for my accent on English as opposed to American literature almost also refer almost entirely to the Jewish characters who appear in the literature and not Jewish writers or who created them or non Jewish writers of course the book capital B double okay which contains most well the Jews in English literature was a best-seller but one which I'm not going to talk about tonight the King James Version of the Bible first published in 1611 and the talking about that book with the Electra in itself so to start with as American film and TV producer Edgar Rosenberg said in about 200 2003 the image of the Jew in English literature has been a depressingly uniform and poverty phenomenon the image of the Jew the classical anti-semitic stereotype was so ingrained that it remained the same even though they were virtually no Jews in England after it would the first had expelled them in 1290 and they didn't return until 12 16:56 on the Cromwell this means that Chaucer Marlowe and Shakespeare had no direct knowledge of the Jews even though they described them as if they did one of the earliest references to Jews in English literature occurs in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales this was written in about 30 90 100 years after the exposure but incidents such as the murder of the little boy Hume in 12:55 by the wicked Jews and other anti-semitic stories which appeared in Piers Plowman 1362 and in John Cowles confess Europe Monte's in 1392 such stories also appear in the story of The Wandering Jew which first appeared in Roger of wenlock's popular ballad and I'll quote you a couple of lines of it just to give you a flavour of the day the wicked Jews with scoffs and scorns did daily him molest that never till he left his life her Savior could not rest okay in addition to this anti-semitic literature the stereotyped image of the horrible grasping Jewish moneylender and Christ killer was also regular part of the church's religious teachings these ideas would put over through the use of the so called morality play these plays were regularly staged to encourage the good folks of England to meet good and honest Christian lives the stage Jew in his pageants was typically grotesque and diabolic looking and in the betraying of Christ Judas appeared wearing a fiery red wig the same style wig has warmed by the devil in how the morality plays naturally had a long nose which was colored bright red in another play the Judgment Day this is what was said about the Jews the Jews spit on me spitty ously naughty piteously they swear me no more than a thief when they're when mcveigh me strike I stood still II against them did I nothing gave but to return to Chaucer and his prior s tale which is a 200 line poem in which a Christian child offends a Jew the Jews then kidnap the hapless Christian boy and slit his throat the Jews are rightfully tortured for this and the child is declared a martyr in modern English the poem the prices tale ends Oh young few of Lincoln's slain also with curse see Jews as it is notable but it is but a little while ago pray also for us it's etc however in contrast today if you go to this magnificent Cathedral in Lincoln you will see there apart from one of the full remaining copies of the Magna Carta the following notice by the side of the remains of the shrine of little Saint Hugh and this is a photo of it and it is this big and this is trumped up stories of ritual murders of Christian boys by the Jewish communities were common throughout Europe during the Middle Ages and even later these actions cost many innocent Jews their lives Lincoln has its own legend an alleged victim notes alleged victim and he was buried in the cathedral in the year 12:55 such stories do not rebound to the credit of Christendom and so we pray Lord forgive what we have been amend what we are and direct what we shall be from twelve thirteen ninety below fast forward two hundred years to 1590 when the best-known Elizabethan dramatist of the time was Christopher Marlowe he had first become known through his play Tamburlaine the great and soon after wrote the famous tragedy of the rich Jew of Malta he wrote this in 1589 1590 note that you is described as rich the rather convoluted convoluted plot goes something like this robbers the Jew the moneylender gets on the wrong side of the governor of Malta while soon after Erebus daughter Barabbas daughter heavy girl runs away from home to become a nun this sound like a precursor of Jessica here Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice Barabbas intends to murder a began but kills a friar who had tried to make Barabbas repent rubber stem plots with the Turkish enemy and becomes the new governor of Malta then he switches sides again these Jews you can trust them and plans to kill the Turks the former governor escapes and causes Barabbas to fall into the trap which he himself had set for the Turks Barabbas not horribly and the Turks are beaten by the Christians in fact if you analyze this play which of course the play goes in 50 90s probably didn't go too carefully Christians are shown to be as be dissin as nasty as the wicked Jew of Malta a few quotes there in the prologue of the play who smiles to see how full his bags are crammed which money was not got without my means and then later I am lots of the tribal BLEVE I that can so soon forget an injury we Jews can form like spaniels when we please and when we grain we bite yet our looks as innocent and harmless as lambs the plays plots of course is very incredible but having a red wig Jew on stage counting his money and betraying everyone right left and center must have made good theatre then as well as reinforcing the received ideas of anti-semitism by the way the Jew of Malta disinvited anti-semitic flavor is still sometimes performed and in March 2005 the Guardian newspaper in England headlined the critique of a performance by the Royal Shakespeare opening as the Jew of Malta anti-semitic or a satire on anti-semitism about six years later Shakespeare wrote The Merchant of Venice I'm not going to go over the plot because I assume you know it but what I want to ask is this is this play anti-semitic quick motive hands who says it's anti-semitic who says it's not anti-semitic who says it abyss of misery my own thoughts are perhaps as a number dollar too hard to give the bar of the benefit of the doubt and say he wasn't being overly anti-semitic considering the times he was living in new and background of the recent Rodrigo Lopez event affair Rodrigo Lopez fan of you here to laugh years ago to a former talk I gave was the Jewish doctor for Queen Elizabeth the first got on the wrong side of one of her chief boyfriends you're the basics and as a result he was hanged drawn and quartered this of course kept the anti-semites delighted and Shakespeare's two famous speeches from this play in Act one Scene three senior Antonio's a Shylock many a time and oft in the rialto you have rated me about my money and my uterus is still I have borne it with a patient shrug for the sufferance is the badge of our tribe later of course t even more famous speech in acts racing one hath not a Jew eyes hath not a Jew hands organs dimensions efetch senses affections passions fed with the same hurt with the same weapons subject to the same diseases now these speeches of course generations of scholars and literary critics – views gallons of ink or megabytes say robear was the bards an anti-semite or not I agree that the plague does have an anti-semitic flavor to it and that anyone Jewish or not cannot really be a nice guy if he demands a pound of flesh as collateral for a loan question is today how is the role of Shylock to be acted John Barton the English director Mary Shakespeare plays who said that today the blatant anti-semitic portrayal of Shylock before the Second World War is no longer acceptable because the Holocaust and today more sensitive portrayal is now standard by the way the themes in this play including the three caskets story and the Jews Imani is pound of flesh ah as with virtually all of Shakespeare's plays were not originally Shakespeare shakes was a fantastic thief and apart from two or three plays took his plots from everybody else he made a base the Shylock story on a must play the Jew or vise known as resolute or a play written by Antony Monday 10 years earlier some scholars have also suggested that Shakespeare was influenced by Marlowe's rich Jew of Malta but what we have to remember is that Shakespeare had to write plays that would put to put into modern English bums on seats for he was a shareholder in the globe and there were many other playwrights around his company in his theater were not the only ones in London so he had to face a lot of competition and the limited potential audience you must remember there that the population London was 200,000 and people would not come from Manchester Liverpool Newcastle to come watch a play in London so his audience is pretty limited so he had to cause people to come the next anti-semitic piece of writing I wish to deal with is the rollin character of Fagin in Oliver Twist again I'm not going into the plot I'll just talk about the games Fagin and the Jews although Dickens did not attack the Jews as Christ killers etc the great lengths to stress the Fagin is a Jew and his physically repulsive and morally degenerate smoke rotation and standing over there with a toasting fork in his hand was a very old sliver led shrivel Jew whose villainous looking and repulsive face was obscured by a quantity of matted red hair he was dressed in a greasy flannel gown with his throat bare and seemed to be dividing his attention between the frying pan and the clotheshorse its epicenter in 1981 in the introduction to the Bantam Books edition of Oliver Twist moving how the american jewish historian and social critic the shakespeare have referred to plaguing as jewish 257 times do you predict that the third to failure as jewish 27 times in the first 38 chapters as opposed to only 42 times as the old man wolf reagan Dickens may have been following the Shakespearean that he wants you to write about a character but the public could easily refer to and in the same way the Lopez may have provided a background link for Shakespeare's Shylock Fagin may have been based on a rather devious nasty Jewish thief called Ikey Solomon was the well-known Jewish friends of stolen goods who had escaped from the police was recaptured amidst the glare of publicity in the early 1830s and Oliver Twist was led Britain in about 1837 some critics even goes so far as to say that begins description of eyeties Solomon's trial forms the background for chapter 30 50 – of Dickens novel when Fagin is put on trial now we jump forward again to 1912 which another example where Jews especially one famous Chu Rufus Isaacs Lord ready and ready very intellibid named after him was the victim of anti-semitic writing this occurred in the poem jaha's II by with your Kipling the original biblical cajas II was the servant of Elisha the prophet who was and Gahan C was a corrupt soul who misuse his authority and mistreated who cheated Naaman the leper does the Bible tells us in the second book of Kings chapter 5 when Elisha finds out what Ghazi is done he cursed him and transferred transformed sorry transferred now man's leprosy to Ghazi and that quote it would cleave to him and to his descendants for ever now the biblical episode was written or rewritten by Kipling and was used as a stick to beat Rufus Isaacs who together with several other prominent senior cabinet ministers in Asquith's three first world war government these gentlemen had been accused in the Marconi case of making money due to their inside information of the government's plan to sign a big deal with the Marconi wireless company this attack was led by the English Catholic Press named in the newspaper the new witness in which Hilaire Belloc together GK Chesterton and his brother were much involved but also healthy anti-semitic aspect of this was a Rufus Isaac's brother Godfrey was the managing director of the Marconi company and this is what Kipling had to say poetically but his nasty affair that generated a lot of bad feeling at the time the last verse he writes now mirror of uprightness what ails the anti vowels what means the risen whiteness of the skin between eyebrows the boils are shinin borrow the souls the slough and bleed the leprosy of Naaman on thee and all thy seed stand up stand up Gavazzi draw close eye robe and go Ghazi judge in Israel hey leper white as snow but just so you'll sleep well tonight Cecil Chester sir Chester Chester the editor of the new witness who brought this case lost he was asked to pay a hundred pounds and costs and it's a hundred pounds over a hundred years ago another famous Victorian who wrote some best-selling anti-semitic literature was George Murray 1834 1896 whose most famous book in addition to his cartoons in punch was trilby in this story Svengali a stereotyped disturber type Joe seduces dominates and exploits true be a young dish girl to become a famous singer the novel which came out in 1895 is extremely popular so much so that would spend galleys into the English language to someone who wishes to control another through evil intent in addition by the way there's a town in Florida named trilby named after the books heroine in case you think I or anyone is exaggerating here the illustration that appears from the first edition shows Svengali as a threatening spider sorry so bad print but I hope you get the message of a nasty spider in a cobweb with a wicked Jew with a long nose in the middle the book was first published it has been criticized as anti-semitic portrayal of Spain garlic in many ways to Maurier's used to suspend galleys name as a synonym for an evil manipulating controller may Allah be equalized in literature and everyday parlance with Dickens Fagin the synonym for nasty Jewish crook an exploiter perhaps in his second novel the Martian which was published a couple of years later to Maury a tribal made amends for his anti-semitism by describing layer thus far indeed rua des jeux a espera de tus has quote vague mysterious and exotic in heretic image of all I love best in women du Maurier also praised his layers grandmother as a splendid old to us he and now this brings to the positive side of Jews in literature the same Charles Dickens was very positive about Jews and a mutual friend in this book written in 1865 about thirty years later after Fagin no with Dickens create several Jewish characters most prominent being mr. riah an old Jew who finds work for poor women in Jewish owned factories one of the ladies Lizzie hexam even refers to Rhea saying quote the gentleman is achoo and the lady his wife is a tourist and I was brought to their notice by Jew but I think there cannot be kind of people in all of the world question open question is Dickens apologizing for his anti-semitic portrait of Fagin or not another Pro Semitic piece of Victorian literature which featured a Jew was Daniel Deronda by George Eliot it's originally published in 8 parts in 1876 and to put this long novel into a nutshell and to concentrate only on his Jewish aspect Daniel Deronda a middle-class Jew of discovering he is Jewish marries Myra Cohen a poor Jewish girl and goes to Palestine to play his part in the Zionist dream George alia paints a glowing picture of Mira's family and for this the author whose real name was Marianne heavens was praised by the Jewish community and by the way she as George Eliot even as a street named after her just a few minutes away just over a home link : even though there were some Jewish characters in this novel including V to quote Montagu mother in the Jew in English literature the rational and Jewish Jew pash in Daniel Deronda is said who made a great impact on the Victorian Zionist world he is represented as having neither faith nor reverence this is Deronda I don't see why our rubbish is to be held and save he says any more than the rubbish of Brightman is a buddhist 'm like bash is a giddy up is good on a Jew by birth but not by temperament and says get on in the book I'm a rational Jew myself I stand by my people as the sorts of family relations and I am for the keeping up of our worship in a rational way I don't approve of our people getting baptized because I don't believe in a Jews conversion to the Gentile part of Christianity Daniel Deronda said to have made a great impact on Victorian from the Victorian Zionist world and said to have influenced several future Zionists such as Isaac leap carrots hey Dee Gordon pellets Maleng skin and more surely William bloom were very impressed by the prophecies of Mulder high in the book Daniel Deronda now so far I've dealt with the most well known books of featured Jews in them either positively or not but now I'm going to deal with some of the lesser-known Jews who appear in English literature there was a play called the Jew by Richard Cumberland we lived from 1731 till 1811 was an English dramatist civil servant and diplomat and in his play the Joe the Jewish protagonist is treated very well the play was first staged in Drury Lane in 1794 was the first English play to portray a Jewish moneylender in a positive light contrast Shylock it is loose about it is about a Jewish Philanthropies the moneylender called Sheva who sets the scene at the beginning of the play when he says when who says we have no abiding place no earth no country no home everybody rails at us everybody points us out for their May game and their mockery if your playwrights want a bus or a buffoon or a knave to make sports off comes a Jew to be baited and buffeted through five long acts for the amusement of all good Christians cruel sports merciless amusements hard dealings for a poor stray sheep of the scattered flock of Abraham how can you expect us to show kindness when we receive none these words obviously struck cold there was even a song written about him and another playwright Thomas dipped in four years later but also wrote similar style plays called video and the doctor and the school for prejudice in 1820 Sir Walter Scott continued following this prose Semitic trend and wrote his famous book Oh which one of its main characters was the beautiful and clever Rebecca it's another Pro Semitic world dating from this period is the painter of Ghent Douglas Gerald wrote this plan 1830 and it includes a Jewish picture dealer called if aboard in a line to a monk if a boat says quote you treat us as if we were a lot of loathsome worms and then marvel if we sometimes crawl another play by Thomas Wade 1805 75 did you of Aragon or the Hebrew Queen call for the toleration of Jews but this play was to produce and the chief actors of the day Charles and Fanny Kemble who paid Sevilla the Jew and his daughter Rachel was severely criticized for identifying them than for identified selves with this production however during despite this positive trend had at the time Jews still many reputable represented in the negative light examples of this is Moncrief swatch Easter where two of the characters who don't know each other Rajasthan and Buckingham disguised themselves as two raggedly dress Jews with the idea of defrauding each other okay up to now I've been talking about pieces winters literature the feature Jews but were written by none Jews now it's been a few minutes talking about Jews who wrote about their fellow Jews during the last hundred and fifty years in the 19th century the dramatist sees eight Barnett wrote the play the rise of the Rothschilds for the honesty of Frankfurt sorry I confirmed the date the Jewish man moneylender here was dealt with much more sympathetically which isn't very surprising as the writer was one of insula another more famous Jewish writer albeit converted to Christianity by his father was the Victorian Prime Minister Ali I'm not going to spend any time on him but would just say that he wrote about Jews positively in his novels Coningsby and tang grade and all right however perhaps the most famous Jewish writer who wrote about Jews during this period was Israel Zhuang Ville the Dickens of the get out 1864 1926 his most famous books include the children of the ghetto a study of a peculiar people 1892 and the king of snorers 1894 Xango son of Eastern European immigrants who grew up in East End of London and was educated at the Jewish for the Jews free school and London University as such he knew the East End very well not several Jewish flavored books in addition to the children of the ghetto such as grandchildren of the ghetto dreamers of the ghetto ghetto tragedies ghetto comedies and the king of Nora's in his last name book king of Nora's Menasha de Costa is an ex portuguese nora living in london in the 18th century perhaps like Tevye the milkman mashallah malaria Manasseh de Costa cease being a Shannara is a great honor and it's a mitzvah to give him money he also sees himself as socially superior to all the other Jewish Norah's arrive after him and he also sees himself and then even better than his Jewish then his wealthy patron Joseph grub stock this humorous book was very popular at the time it was even made into musical comedy in 1979 and to keep my American or ex American listeners here happy tonight there was Israel's anvil through his book The Melting Pot 1909 the helped popularize the popularize this expression now to bring this talk up to date I'm going to rush through the 20th century the sort of shopping list of English literature I'll stop with the anti-semitic side first and end up with a Pro Semitic side so everyone can go home with a positive taste in your mouth in a 75 line poem Geron T TS Eliot wrote in 1920 he portrays the Jew Jew spelt with a small J my house is a decayed house and the Jews squats on the windowsill the owner spawned in some East a minute of Antwerp not the Jews squats frog-like and if you don't get the message he's spawned if you still don't get the message in a stamina which was not a which is probably like a brothel which the English soldiers moved from their time in France and first world war however to give TS Eliot some credit fourteen years later in 1934 like Dickens he changed his tune and in the rock he venerates the Prophet Nehemia who quote grieved for the broken city of Jerusalem her Nastya and more classic description of Jews and money was made by such Catholic writers who have already mentioned Hilaire Belloc GK Chesterton and also Graham Greene in the Jews 1922 benlloch rights at the Jews and the Protestants not just us the arch enemies of civilization and he believed in the theory of the international Jewish conspiracy to control the world this was something like the protocols of the Elders of Zion which had been written 19 years earlier in 1936 Graham Greene provide the classical medieval connection of the Jews and the devil in various books such as stumble train in America was known as the Orient Express also begun 1936 and Brighton Roth 1938 which featured a sinister Jewish gang leader called Colleoni George Bernard Shaw who saw if I choose a man and Superman where he described Mendoza a Jewish brigand in an attractive way James chul soo sorry about Jews as Leopold Bloom in Ulysses but here is shown in a neutral light and the Frog for anti-semitic the sort of father character in 1958 Brian Glanville wrote a novel the bankrupts he featured a wealthy Northwest London Jewish middle class family who lives somewhere between Hendon and Hampstead probably God called the Freeman's and Glanville is very critical of Jewish in witches this book Glanville is very critical of Jewish society the title the bankrupts refers to their mental state and lots of their financial status because they were anything but finally in CP snows novel CP stands for very good Charles Percy's novel the con conscience of the rich also came out in 1958 he writes about an angling Anglo Jewish banking family but he keeps away from the old classic portrayal of the ever money grasping Jew and it's my favorite book on English history 1066 and all that says this is a good thing thank you so many names that one could mention that them so Davies is aware of and he didn't have time one that I think ought to be brought out here the number reasons his the name of John gourds worthy he wrote a play called loyalties which I remember seeing not early on British television BBC it's a story set after the first world war in a British country home which also supplies the psychic people at present and one of the guests is a Jew named Ferdinand Olivos in the course of the weekend is robbed he suspects that the thing is an Army officer named captain dancing and eventually he accuses him of the Templar dance she is supported of course by only other good Christians who were present at until finally the truth comes out and at one stage the most remarkable thing for a non-jewish playwright in England and at one stage when Nancy says you damned you echoes Disraeli by saying my people were old when you were all savages the most remarkable thing for a non Jewish Russian Jew but anybody who has any questions would they please identify themselves right worship cows should come I'm a great admirer of Gilbert and Sullivan as many people here may know they ought to point out the WS Gilbert who wrote the bad balance some of them are violently anti-semitic I mean really awful and I thought that it is it's worth mentioning because you haven't mentioned WS Gilbert but if you any of you have got the bad balance of want to read my copy even in books where Jews aren't characters but they're just spoken up by other characters for example the northbounder Abbey by Jane Austen who writes in the most genteel way she has one character save on another character you know he's as rich as a Jew and I'm just wondering Jane Austen sure cos from 1817 or so what was the view did you all choose for rich every Jew have to be rich that was that was the that was the view from the bankers with that can I just say one more thing then the thing about mr. riah in our mutual friend Deacon's have him say that when one juice does something he says you could be you can talk about spatterix but there will be good grades or you could talk about bad Turks but there will be good terms but if you talk about a bad Jew it's a reflection of everything and I thought Dickens was very smart about and obviously a very to comment I remember when he was being attacked by Jewish bacon don't forget was elected baby's face but one thing the thickest said was that in his time he said in fairness to himself most of the fences generals normally just on that particular for career I mean I think it's worth mentioning that about 18 about 1860 Dickens sold his house in London to a man called James Davis James Davis was a Jewish London banker Dickens very much appreciate in the way that the sale wept and said what a sort of wonderful transaction in has he then became friendly with James's wife Eliza Eliza then wrote to Dickens and said that the portrayal of Fagin as it were has caught a lot of token is unfair Dickens then corrected the text that the later additional and moved out most of the anti-semitic references this has not necessarily been people of like to reprint the earlier one but that and edition was Dickens and said you know that I think I'm awfully views etc and then right rear and the other Our Mutual Friend the difficulty of course is that rear is a rather flat character a good model where Fagin is a very vibrant nasty wicked massive except when he was made into a musical you didn't mention this high level literature but we talked about popular literature yeah all right one thing that comes to mind is Agatha Christie there are numerous references to Jewish characters throughout their generally unpleasant the one very one thing took to two particular other authors came to mind one of them was a series of books very popular that twenties thirties Bulldog Drummond original author was called attacked who was else out fascist they there is a book called the black gang which is about as unpleasant reading as you can get the other one that comes to mind the books of Beau Geste by PC Wren he hasn't when he's describing how Beau Geste gets himself into trouble he has and talks about a jeweler pawnbroker character refers to him as the child of Israel who is about as unpleasant and anti-semitic caricature that you can get this character has got nothing to do with the story he simply put in there and the these books were popular at the time I don't think people don't remember but these would have seemed on television and films and so on they in popular if literature this theme of nasty Jews it's sort of that is the Krista refers to one oh yeah he was fat and fifty and obviously love loves money I remember BBC early days of television they put on the play and anti-semitic and anti-israel play in which the villain was an Austrian Jew who had come to England was involved in espionage or something and one of his vices wicked characters was the fact that he liked some scented brown chocolates just I brought I actually looked at scene up that you just referred to and because I Red Bull just I remember that scene after many many years and I don't remember things like that normally and this pawnbroker that you described is has every stereotype of the Jew that you can imagine but the interesting thing about I I didn't you remember was how it ended the author writes one should not judge erase bias by single specimens of course but racial apathy antipathy is a curious thing but racial anticipate is a curious thing I mean he kind of wipes himself clean yeah nothing to do with the story much knowledge of American well Jews and American literature therefore I can't say is more than less than German German Austria literature the masses of Jewish but they and also to some extent in Russian and French but I think in England you've got the widest range of all these possibility in Russia after all there were many few Russian writers who approached Jewish to some extent told stories are not on Gianna and one or two others at a later stage who were Democrats but they were Americans and the person of the Soviet system eaten the Jews I do I delight and any more questions name please your question the odd way the famous recasting by Fitzgerald actually includes a leading reference to a Jew was not identified as a Jew but there is reference made to the size of his nose he pronounces the famous University o GG s fo Rd of expert so referring to the fact that he had an accent and his nose it was fairly clear what would be referred to and that again was who was essential to the plot but he definitely appears in it very well knows American novel and I don't I've never heard of anyone who protested to attention to the facts it's an example and it's the only place in the book actually where he makes any attempt to use dialect to identify a character everybody else speaks pretty much one little pointer over there we've had the name of G K Chesterton my lady his brother a K Chesterton as I mentioned in the lecture some months ago was a leading fascist supporter of Mosley young and in fact publicly one of his publicists and he was alone more questions then I think I will have to ask our secretary forgot to consult with me about this give the birch of thing filled the hole and entertain the really very large audience tonight I'm the treasurer I've got the money at the door later on we've had view over many many centuries covered a wide range of rich and we've had a very good exchange from the audience at the end and I'm sure the exchange with the audience could we have gone on for for a long long time so perhaps or getting this topic together – it's at other times it's comes over very well and very entertaining and thank you very much

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