Demystifying the Literature Review



and my name is Rachel breakfast and I'm one of the reference research librarians here in Ellis library and this is my colleague Jim Carey and as you see on the board the topic of today is the mystifying the lit review a few practical things first we do have a group participating online as well and our colleague Elora will be helping us keep track of people's questions from online which will be coming in through the chat and so when I put things up on the whiteboard I'll be doing it on the screen if whiteboard and visible in the classroom in same place is the PowerPoint so we will not be doing a lot of like you won't have to worry about working these computers because we're not going to actually do a lot of hands-on in this particular workshop but I will be asking you you know some questions about what you think about things and you know kind of where you're coming from and so on as we go through so that'll be the the nature of the participation here and then when I congratulate all of you for doing the smart thing at the beginning of your semester and learning to work smarter not harder which is the theme of our Fridays at the library workshops it's you'll be off to a good start and I hope that you'll learn things today and if you come to some of our other workshops learn things there too that will help you throughout your your career here so to get a sense of our group today I just like to ask how many of you are graduate students some kind of most that's what I thought okay undergraduates faculty excellent couple good and staffed good a little bit of everybody about how many people are Laura we're saying online okay yeah well yeah just if people come in they can just type what they are you know student back yeah okay and a little bit on some departments raise your hand in the classroom or say yes online if you are from engineering not too many but some okay how about if you are from education the other II or of the other AI have at least here in the classroom how about a social science of some kind Social Work sociology over this side of the classroom and a little bit over here too all right and our psychology about science biology or physics or chemistry or something like that not too many here ok that's that's an important thing for us to know any online oh yeah any nursing in here they're all over there online village I know Nursing has a lot of online students that's great and let's see any humanities like history classics religious studies philosophy any of those all right and your person Superman on the front I like it humanities I'm a humanities and social science librarian myself that's so great ok so starting with the basics here what is a literature review let's just throw out some ideas and I'm gonna switch off the PowerPoint and switch onto the whiteboard to do that so as people say what are some important you know important things about a lit review you know what what is it just just throw some ideas out and then we'll go to them ok good what's already filled oh yes way over there yes where there is not okay yeah so what's not there okay and I'll say main findings yes okay yeah so that's yeah I guess and and the word knowledge is important here too because you know we talked about sort of a continuum between data and information and knowledge right we're kind of the closer he gets toward the knowledge and the more sort of processing and analysis that the information has gone through versus when it's kind of information growing on trees to be picked off ish you know or potential information through information and then when it's the knowledge it's actually you know in somebody's head who can do something with it that's my lady finition don't quote me on that but but yeah but it's important because knowledge has to do with what you are able to do with what you've read yes yes yeah there's a lot of ego going on in this I will not lie yeah so kind of the people that are attached to all these information packages that we analyzed you must cite them where they will think you know nothing so yes yes important to know who the names are yeah yeah sort of the first two I mean what's in the field and so I'll add or area and what's not there and we could even say what's in the field or area also in terms maybe of methods – okay so we'll leave this here for now return to the PowerPoint but yeah you're all kind of getting getting bits of this I would say so okay it was that sharing No okay oh please move this window away from stop share okay all right so this is a definition that was provided by somebody who used to do this workshop sometimes this is Jonathan Cisco of the MU campus writing and program it kind of draws it together has some important points there it's a thematic synthesis and he emphasizes that right as synthesis you know putting together of sources used to provide readers with an up-to-date that's important to write you want to be current summary but you have to be careful with that word summary of theoretical and empirical findings on a particular topic but it's a summary of like everything all together after you've analyzed it not a summary like of article number one article number two article number three but a summary of the theoretical and the empirical and you know kind of how much of the theoretical and how much of the empirical and exactly what that means there is you know from fields of field but that's it's a pretty good working definition I think across fields and I kind of gave the answer to that but oh good I'll just go ahead and say that these literature reviews can take many forms right like obviously it's an essential chapter of your thesis or dissertation right because the whole point of a dissertation is to identify one of these gaps and and be able to to sort of say where your particular contribution is it's very important but it's also you're not done with that once you're out with your PhD either you you keep on doing me having this sort of habit as you do research reports or articles because you always have to contextualize what it is you're doing in one field or even sometimes in more than one field or more than one part of the same field or whatever and then and then finally we're not going to talk about this as much today and this last one but there are of course these self-contained a literature review articles known as systematic reviews and meta-analysis and actually this little book right here that just came in on the new bookshelf although it's already marked up with pen and highlighter so somebody's been using it already we might have gotten that used I don't know if I see that anyway it's some it's a book about how to write systematic reviews and meta-analyses now so the larger category here is a lit review or review of the literature if you want to be formal and then a subcategory of that a smaller category within that is the systematic review in which like I say an entire article is dedicated to specifically comparing and answering one particular one very often a very practical question clinical type question this comes out of medicine and like the doctors want to know if you know people with you know a certain macular degeneration of the eye right or you know some particular disease whether some particular treatment helps that it's some Center done a really practical question and then a meta-analysis is and this kind of that kind of systematic review is since carried over into other fields like Social Work has started doing it a lot like this this book is about writing these things for Social Work and then the meta-analysis is where you're actually trying to mash together all of the math parts of quantitative studies for these things so meta-analysis is a subcategory of the systematic review which itself is the subcategory of the lit review and then I have this other little category down to the side the annotated bibliography which is really different thing an annotated bibliography is simply a list of works often books and it's just you have a description and some maybe some evaluation of each of the items on your list and those have a place and you know sometimes a in a way of syllabus is it's almost a form of that but they're but an annotated bibliography is is quite different analytically it does not attempt like a lit review does to really synthesize and put stuff together across and in the same way at all so and then the purpose of the review as you were touching on is to identify what they call the seminal works meaning you know the ones the seeds right the the articles that everybody's citing and next week when you have lit review too we will show you a couple of databases that are really good at identifying those that they'll tell you which articles are cited a lot so stay tuned for that next week and then the exemplary studies and then another purpose is to identify the areas of consensus and the areas of divergence so consensus you know where were this general agreement like I think even more and more others general agreement on the climate change exists and areas of divergence or debate among researchers so they they might have debates about how fast or what are the most important components or causes of climate change or some other things and then to help design your methodology that's I mean it's good to read what methods others have used to answer the questions that you're interested in and and sort of defend your methodology has to you know why you pick that instead of some other thing and then as people have said you know to highlight gaps in the research and in the purpose of that of course is to avoid unnecessary duplication okay so that's overall the why why we go through the exercise of the lit review and here's an example of what a lit review actually looks like at the start of an article it may not have a section title that says review but that's what it's doing so looking at this and this is an article by one of our professors here in our sociology department or last name isn't the same anymore but it's the same person and she was writing she is immediately looking to a question right does the extent of your neighbors income relative to your own affects the extent to which you trust your neighbors that's kind of her research question and then sort of a second research question does it affect the extent to which you perceive yourself to be healthy these questions she identifies then as the foundation of the relative position hypothesis and then she cites the researchers who are associated with this relative position hypothesis and then she goes on and says a few other things about that hypothesis so she has found some aspect of the writings of these people and has pulled it out and grouped them together and put it in the context of what she's doing she goes on here I won't read the whole thing but the color-coded parts are she's kind of giving a big picture of the other research where she says a substantial body of research has resulted from the thing she was talking about before that attempted that attempts to explain the relationship between income inequality and health and then she goes into a few more examples and then she goes into this gap identification thing but how much work has emerged that analyzes the importance of less is focused on the individual experience of inequality so that's signaling right that that's going to be what she does the individual experience of inequality and the processes that underlie the individual health consequences that arise from relative position so she's kind of saying okay they've done all these things and they've they've all contributed to that and this is what's and that's what I'm gonna do so then in read the part then she goes into the specifics of what she's gonna do and she kind of summarizes it at the end of the paragraph this work examines the relationship between individual relative position within residential context perceptions of trust and self-rated health and then you know she'll go on from there into a paper but all of this is in the section titled introduction in the beginning of our article so what she's not doing is what undergraduates commonly do because they you knows nobody's told them otherwise in their papers where they say introduction purpose logical story I mean you do want a logical story in your introduction but that's part of what you're doing cite in the literature but then sort of going into a paragraph author says you know author one says this X paragraph author two says that and no you don't want to do that what you want is to think of it much more in terms of a theme right so you've got your purpose and your logical story kind of what she was doing there and then pretty quickly you get into you know some theme that you have pulled and extracted out of all of the or of several you know of the articles that you've been looking at of the books whatever and and and you've been sort of grouping them according to some theme the themes can be content you know they can be substantially a substantial you know what's being studied the themes can also be methodological the themes can be theoretical but that they that the main thing is you are not just lining it up and saying you know article one article to article three it's the most important bit there so you will be looking at all your articles to identify the relationships this is still me right okay and then we're classifying you're grouping papers or papers sections by the top of the method the theme and then comparing and contrasting those papers addressing similar questions so relationships between versus what they have in common where they disagree where the gaps might be you know how you might answer you know how you might address a disagreement right if you say that this thing and that thing disagree what would you do to sort of get past the disagreement or sort of resolve the disagreement and then you're fitting it within an outline now all of that sounds extremely organized sensible logical everything you can think of but Tim's about to tell you what it's really like in real life because he's written a dissertation so we'll go okay thank you so yeah so far we've looked at and what a literature review is and we you can expect to find a literature review the invitation to an article and sometimes whole articles or review articles and we've also looked a little bit at the purposes of literature reviews a little bit about at the organization so wanting this synthetic approach that's right merit review and how you would call that and as as Rachel said so far we've taken a fairly simple fairly linear approach so you identify your secondary literature you read it he's classified compare different apples books whatever to each other infinite line and you have a literature view so that's all very nice and similar work but it sounds some fairly sort of linear process you just follow the steps through in practice turns out then it can be a little bit messier than that as is that we have up on this slide the writing process is messy and that's okay and so in practice it will tend to be a little bit messy in there you'll often find that parts of the process go around in circles and they'll be a bit a little bit more repetitive and then just this sort of linear sleep a sleep see and so I'm going to talk a little bit about they're missing us and perks give you one or two tips on how to control that missus I can't promise that I'll be able to eliminate missing us for your toning that's possible and in some ways it's not even desirable because the messiness is also part of the creative process of scholarship so the throwing ideas against each other and having to rethink them and revise them and all that sort of thing that's actually good to keep your ideas from so you don't actually necessary want to eliminate all than this all the messiness but it's nice to go up to her to control it so we're in the slide we start obviously with some sort of planning stage this slide applies to writing and in general but we can certainly apply so we start over C with some sort of planning stage and in that stage you're going to come up with your basic topic your initial topic you can identify the secondary literature related and we do have a workshop next week is Rachel say to another repeat workshop and that's the workshop which is really going to tell you all about how you would find the sources and you're going to obviously then read a good deal of that savory literature and then following that green level a green arrow you're going to go into the actual writing process beginning with the drafting the initial draft of your literature review and as you can see from the slide that's where things will tend to get a little bit more messy a little less linear a little bit more maybe circular repetitive so you're going to draft you have an initial draft but then you're going to want to do all sorts of things with that draft you're probably going to confer with people your peers and your supervisor whoever that might be you're going to want to do some proofreading anything in that that sort of thing you probably want to go back to the planning stage listen to extent more reading more thinking about your topic and we'll talk a little bit more about that just a minute you're gonna reenact revising so redrafting you're not just gonna one right one draft and then polish it probably gonna write civil drafts and slowly move towards that finished product I'm seeing and you're gonna just generally rethink I'm a lot of your ideas as you go through this process and that's where things can get a little bit more a little bit more messy altom Utley obviously you will in that some polishing this this little review up and along with the rest of your writing project and you'll get to some sort of publishing stage publishing here covers the house a lot of options that could actually be publishing a man out books familiar for publication it might be submitting your dissertation or just a term paper to a professor and then eventually I hope you'll get some sort of feedback whether that's from a travel supervisor whatever and that might in fact then go back to planning a future project you might use that feedback to move on to another another project so anyway the whole processes is a little less linear than preps with back up to this point so just to concentrate a little bit more on the relationship between your topic the thesis that you develop and the reading of the secondary literature so again just emphasizing that kind of nonlinear the nonlinear nature of this part of the process at least at least initially because what's probably going to happen and certainly what happened when I was writing my and PhD dissertation it's like I came in with an initial topic I knew the area that I wanted to work on and so identified a whole bunch of reading with that that area that was fine I then did that reading and that made me think a little bit differently about the topic so then I had to go back and revise the topic for certain extent and then having revised the topic there then push me in slightly different directions in terms of what additional reading I wanted to do so then I did that reading and that of course made me rethink my topic a little bit you don't want to be going around in circles forever obviously and you won't be going around in circles very much but you will probably go through this process you know at least a few times it won't just be here's my topic here's my reading is my dissertation so you will probably be going through this process of refining and what your topic is for finding your thesis and through reading and then rereading and so on and then eventually obviously you'll get the actual topic you want to want to write about at one point I would certainly make in terms of identifying reading and then doing the reading for any sort of major research project is that you're going to have to read selectively and just about any field I think there's going to be more secondary literature than anyone that was certainly the case and for me my backgrounds in classical studies so I was in these examples of norm for my dissertation so yeah so these are examples from a humanities dissertation but I think the broader points can be applied and pretty much across the board to most and to most disciplines so I was doing a dissertation on the theme of Exile in Homeric epic poetry so ancient Greek poetry by Homer and then in particular the theme of Exile and so probably quite different from the topics that most of you doing mostly same piece of social sciences but as I say some of the broader points I think we're good so when you're thinking about how to do this this reading after you have to read them selectively the modern scholarship on the Homer is usually thoughtful began in the 1790s was a very famous piece of the secondary literature published in the 1790s in Germany and since then there have been thousands tens of thousands of books articles dissertations essays commentaries provisions there's no way that I could read so what you need to do is you're going to need to think about your topic and break down your topic in different ways and so as to read most effectively and to really concentrate on the most relevant of the city literature we have a couple of examples of how you might do that I'm up on this slide so if you sort of think of these think of this as sort of concentric and circles so in the middle there you can see on the left in the middle there I've got exile in Homer that's my topic that's my quite narrow topic and I only found a handful of articles that really really narrow you dealt with that topic so that's fine exile usually involves some sort of travel so then I brought down and think okay so what if people written more generally about travel in over America and already at that stage there's more than I can read but I can be quite a bit of that literature it's not too overwhelming and then the next stage you might say well Homer in general and falen home that comes under Homer in general and there you really would have to be very selective once you're getting close very broad areas I would only have picked out you know a handful of really prominent works usually comes trading on the most recent materials because you do want to be today that's especially important in the sciences and the humanities we tend to read older materials as well but it's only I would have concentrated on recent studies but certainly not everything at that level you're really dealing with you're really dealing more selectively and then just another example on the right yeah because you're going to want to go again through this process more than once it's not just one time you're finished you probably want to go through this and this process and at least at least a few times I'm looking at the topic in different ways so again I start with exile and Homer which is a sort of treble exon there's a moment treble but it's also kind of the Homeric legal system you usually get exiled for committing murder so then I'm thinking my exile in Homer I can also look at law in Homer the legal system and this is another direction that I can that I can go in I couldn't read all of that there's a lot written about that topic but I could read quite a bit and then I could maybe move out I could have moved out again just a homo but already done there so I can move out against maybe law and literature legal systems as they're represented in the literature more generally not just in Homer and an individual and this vast on that topic so again I can't read all of that but I can pick out a few relevant things that are relevant that are related to my it's my topic so yeah if you think about these sort of concentric circles obviously what you want to do is is the closer you are to the center there the more exhaustive you want go reading to be and as you move out through these different layers you're going to become more and more selective as you as you put together sort of list of of what you want to and again you want to do it several where several times probably rather than just step I'm just once or twice now rachel is a way as already mentioned and as one of the purposes of the literature review and so thinking through and presenting at your methodology and certainly incorporating methodology is a very important part of electric review again I'm going to talk sort of based on my my own experience the ride with my my particularly dissertation and what I ended up doing was more or less writing to literature reviews they were two very closely related and then some to some extent overlapping reviews but I ended up writing basically too well in many ways at least and separate so as I've said I've already I did all this reading on Homer and so that was the major part of my opinion on Homer and exile of Homer in particular but I was also taking a very particular approach to Homeric epic poetry and there was narratology now we don't need to go into too much detail about what narratology is that's not really relevant here basically it's the study of narratives the study of how stories are told within within works of literature so you can kind of hope you never main narrate I mean you can also have characters within telling stories but how do those narratives relate to each other our trustworthy our narratives do do we have untrust were we right at authors use that sort of and writer so all these sorts of issues are what narratology covers and I was wanting to apply this approach and there's a big body of theoretical literature about the use of narrative in words of literature so I was wanting to apply this approach narratology to homer in particular so I then had to go out and do all sorts of reading on narratology and most of that was not related to Homer at all most of it was related to 20th century literature so much more recent literature never they saw Wayne often did all this reading and on narratology and then form the basis of another major section of my literature reviews in some ways even a separate literature review on methodology on my particular method now ideally what you'll find and I did find this is there will be some overlap between the method that you're applying and your overactive topic and I did find there that there were already some as you can see there already some narrative logical studies of Homer so they didn't relate to exile in particular that was my topic but people had written about other aspects of cons using my particular approach so obviously they were particularly important to me and when I was writing that section or that literature review of my methodology they're the ones that I really focused on but I did also include all sorts of other things that had nothing to do with Homer but we're related to my so this is really only given as as an example I mean there are there are so many different ways of incorporating methodology into your you will certainly read literature use which incorporate methodology sort of as they go through the different things the different ways if anyone had to organize they're right there you don't bring in methodology at different points I decided that for me it won't be there basically the treat my methodology separately and at the end obviously relating it as much as possible as I could to my topic but having it kind of as a self-sustaining how you divide your literature um how you organize and topic as opposed to methodology that's gonna vary probably depending on what your particular topic and how it works best for you but the main point is that you do need to make sure that you really do include your methodology one way one way of the other there's a very important for for a research paper well that's sort of what I did I mean you could either say that I and you could say I had one literature view followed by another literature but in some ways I had one literature which had all these things and when I handed and this kind of thing on the end my methodology although it was much bigger than any of the other things it was and in some ways divide that within itself but depending on how much emphasis you need to put our methodology in some research topic there's some research some projects you need a more emphasis on methodology than others you always need it to be in here somewhere but if it wasn't such a big issue you could sort of shrink it down maybe to just there and just decide and so the other the other things I kind of did that with imagine if you want to well just just add it's always a good idea to take a look at like that example that I should there that article look at some articles in your field and just sort of see I mean kind of even though your research paper is not going to be published seeing those published articles is definitely that that's sort of how it's done and that can be a good signpost ya know it does tend very little from field to field i I don't think I was wise enough to go to this workshop when I started writing my review but I had read plenty of books in my field and so I was I'm basing my approach very much on what other people in my food we're doing and this is the sort of approach that yeah obviously gonna you're gonna draw and you can draw your organizational structure as well from especially look up your professors if you know who's going to be reading your your work as you want something like a dissertation and it's always good to look at what they've done because they okay and then this is just again kind of reiterating that entry for missing this or at least a nonlinear process and the same thing is going to happen when you think about your methodology method with my relation to your reading has happened when you think about your topic in relation to reader so you're gonna come in probably with some sort of idea of what method you want to use you can do a bunch of reading on it that's probably going to influence how you think about that method you then maybe gonna go a little bit more reading and then you're gonna slowly refine this this approach and you gonna take so initially at least again that's not necessarily just going to be out I think my methodology I just need to do my reading the minified you're gonna have to probably refine and rethink as you go along in social science if you're I mean some of the methodology you have to nail down a certain amount right like if you're gonna do the survey or something you have to figure out what kind of survey into whom and so so it it's parts of it will get nailed down for sure but it's it's also important though you just think in case you do have to make some future adjustments to something that as you are gathering your data and I think one of the later workshops in this series will talk some about sort of data curation and keeping track of your data that it becomes really important that just sort of every piece of data that you collect that you've got a systematic way to label it so that you can find it again and sort of there's there's simple little organizational things that you can do that will make your data a lot more useful even if you tweak a little something about the method or if you or if you want to make your data available for other researchers to do projects on there's a lot of reasons to do and a lot of government agencies now granting agencies want you to I have a plan for creating your data and that will be the subject okay so we've talked a little bit about some of the challenges that you'll you'll probably face as you write your literature review and the whole research project the research project in general and so the literature itself the sickling literature can seem overwhelming sometimes but there are ways that you can you can read selectively and you always need to be somewhat selectively and the whole process can seem a little bit a little little bit messy it can feel like you're going around in circles a little bit that you're constantly revising and different parts of the process and as I said that's actually a good thing in many ways it's part of the creative process but there are also ways that we can help at least keep that under control so there are various tools that we can we can use when we are approaching the writing of a lit review that will help keep that messiness at least somewhat under control and one of the main things that you can do is that you can develop what is called a synthesis matrix which is say as you can see there at all that's based on a grid so it's basically just a grid structure down one axis you're gonna have the works that you want to cite or at least you're considering psyching grid and across the other axis you're going to want to divide this matrix up into key aspects of all these articles or books or other items of secondary literature that you're afraid and that you want to compare in various ways and really this is a tool and to help with that process of comparison it also just sort of keeps in order what you've read but it's very useful for in particular thing that process of comparing the different things that you breathe so I have an example of that's here this one's taken from nursing so this is an example of what a beginnings of a synthesis matrix would look like we've just got one I can take religion obviously you'd have a lot of initial rows with Amana right so on the left-hand side there you can see the the author and we've got the data to keep track of when these things were published and then the other columns are breaking up this article and then all the subsequent apples that you read in two different focusing on different aspects that you might be interested in comparing across the literature so in this case we've got unit of analysis and this one's the study looks at nurses at the level of the individual you've got variables so the variable is sort of being looked at in this study data collection so when was it collected how was it collected what was the response rate and so on and then another column of the air for general comments and outcomes implications so there's sort of any notes that there might be useful for you think about how this how this piece of literature relates to what it has to say about now obviously depending on what your topic is your matrix might look very different from this you might have several more columns but obviously it sounds gonna be very different but you see the idea once you have this matrix and set up and you have all this information including the matrix will be very easy for you to compare all of these different articles in terms of data collection for example in this case or in terms of the unit of analysis so some of these aspects that you'll be identifying is very important now you have a very easy way to go through and group them in different ways and you can use that obviously to think about how you're going to in structure your your electric tribute when it comes to actually actually you can sort of try out different ways of structuring it and work out what's going to work this to you now there are all sorts of other tools that you can use for the writing of a literature review I'm not going to go through these in any great detail especially than that ones in number one they're on that on the slide largely because we do have three Friday's and libraries workshops coming up which focus on each of those bibliographic management software tools respectively so we have one coming up on EndNote one on terror and one on min delayed so basically you know they have that software that helps you organize your refuse of your footnotes in notes as well and but it's also very useful for and just keeping track of and reading and organizing so yes it's an encourage you to go along to those there's also note-taking software that you can get which can help you take notes out of the literature of your reading and organize that annotate that way so that's something that you can but there are also some maybe more old-fashioned down systems they can also be very very effective very efficient I hope you organize your reading and so physical systems like color-coded stickies for example so a lot of people use those but as they go through books as they going through articles you can have one hello assigned to each theme and we did this with your own books rather than with the libraries books but but as you go through obviously you can each thing comes up as each aspect that your interests will comes up you can just apply it and that can be a very quick and very efficient way of if you need to go back and find out where discuss every quick and efficient way through there so it doesn't necessarily need to be quickly high tips what I was going to say I first heard of that idea from a graduate student about a year go at the same party that I'm going through against my hates but somebody was talking about oh yeah that person she whenever she reads anything about like the aspect of women and femininity in the title that makes that that she puts a purple sticky on it right it'll and so she has these thingies and they're sticking out of her photocopied articles and and her books and of course the there are no cards that come in these colors as well so for our library books you know glue is bad for the book and then you know these are books we hope to keep for a long time so we recommend in terms of our library books use the colored note cards and kind of cut them up into little pieces and put them all bookmark in there to say okay on this page is something really important for the the femininity aspect of it or the methodological aspect for a yellow sticky you say or I mean a yellow know card piece that kind of thing so it was just in I could totally picture doing that too and it being really useful because then you can have a nice stack of paper and look right at it and see what's all you know what the important things are in each piece so and you can always move them and you know for different topics or if you use in the book for one thing one semester and another thing another semester you can do that too um as far as the matrix goes now in the nursing program that I was a part of and they were talking about the matrix they were really emphasizing do it in Excel have an actual grid like that I mean I would say it's sort of useful to have it in a grid like that but on the other hand it's Excel can be a little unwieldy if you wanted to print it out or something it's it's I don't know if I would do it in an in a literal grid like that but if you sort of conceptualize it that way as having a finite number of columns like in that grid that we were looking at there I would say methodology is covered in these columns number three four and five that's all stuff related to the methods and then they've only got one column over here about sort of more the substance of it and chances are in real life you would have more than that about the substance but any rate um but what you can do is you can take a something like a Zotero or an N know a program and those programs let you tag your literature and they also let you attach notes or even attach attachments like if you were taking notes in Word on something you can attach that word document to the entry in Zotero or endnote or Mendeley and and and and they will also let you tag it so you could attach a tag that just says you know methodology although you'd probably want it to say I don't know you maybe even want to give it a little code like you know method xxx or you know I don't know something that will distinguish it because these systems are searchable and so if I have a tag then if by cert in it and I use it consistently then if I use like I don't know qualitative method one or I don't as long as I understand what those codes are and maybe you have a list of them somewhere it's an independent note in Zotero but if you apply them then you can then search all of the literature that you've gathered in these systems for that particular tag and you will pull together all of the stuff in there that has to do with with that aspect so it's a little bit I mean just bear that in mind if you come back and come to the so the Zotero and Mendeley workshops in a few weeks from now but that is that organism that there are things you can do with tagging to help organize the literature and those products so that's another sort of physical way to do it but you know but it may be that in the beginning you like the rows and columns and stuff – that's definitely nothing wrong with learning a little bit of itself yeah let's see the that one oh well let's see the what you would do is I think the point of having a grid is that what you're doing with these articles right that you're reading is you're taking them apart and you're putting them together again okay and because remember your lit review and the end or any part where you're talking about other literature is you're sort of addressing it you're sort of you're talking about some aspects like if we're going back to our to our article and here she's saying you know a substantial body of research has resulted that attempts to explain the relationship between income inequality and health and and and then she talks about the association with social trust and health and some other variables I mean she's pulling out particular things like if I were doing a matrix that would lead to an article like this I might have a column for let's see kind of how income inequality is measured right there what what measure is used for income inequality and I might have another column for you know what how health is measured if I'm doing a matrix for my articles about income inequality and health there um and then it's just sort of a way to to sort of prevent yourself from just reading through the article like it's a story and and and it helps you to sort of pull out the important the salient parts that you want to think about for each article it's a way of breaking up the article into pieces that you can then mix and match and put that together if that makes sense and sometimes you know and and and what your columns are exactly will very much depend on on your topic and you might even talk about it with your advisor if you want to or or earth your subject librarian maybe but probably your advisors better sorta and you can experiment too I mean the some of this process can be well okay I'm finding that none of my articles really have anything in that column so maybe I'll slightly rework how the columns are and that's part of reworking your review um in the paper itself and the main thing is we're we're avoiding this thing and we want that thing right with any of these and a matrix definitely helps you break it up so that you can pull out the key aspects so his has any I'm just curious as anyone used any or what what kind of note-taking methods are there people who who really have good note-taking methods that they let work or programs that they like to use they'd want to share fellow grad students – that's a color coding yeah people are pretty visual yeah yes it's true yeah and Zotero and I think in all of these programs there's a way to to attach a note to a particular source back in the day when I was writing research papers it was like you had to put a number on the card that had the bibliographic information and then and then you put that same number on the card where you took notes and they need to always forget and you'd get lazy and you wouldn't number at least I did maybe that's why I didn't go on and get that PhD right too lazy didn't have a class like this yeah yes color-coding do not underestimate and other programs I know they're there I'm trying to remember the names of some of these note-taking programs but I know people who use them seem to like them remember what's that original refworks I think is more of another one of these of the bibliographic management software's primarily although yeah some people may primarily use it for them note-taking and refworks I'm trying to remember there's there's two that are very similar names there's refworks and there's ref manager and refworks is not a software that that Mizzou has bought into whatever so it's so a lot of people come from other institutions and they have to transfer their libraries over which you can do all these systems talk to each other but but I mean there's there is some and I know as soon as I leave this classroom I will remember the name of the note-taking software which is distinct from the bibliographic management software that's really um I think it's yeah and I was bothering me I can't think of it but yeah yeah I think that yeah that would be more along the lines yeah that's one of them and there's been at least yeah one note maybe that's the other one every one note Evernote those are good things to Google one notes all one word and Evernote I think that one's stuff a logo of an elephant doesn't it oh yeah well Google dry I mean Google Drive serves a somewhat different purpose right I mean Google's in like I think of Google Drive is where you can kind of score documents and share them but documents mostly that you're writing yourself or putting yeah yeah Google and yeah Google Docs being the part of Google I mean Google Drive is kind of the storage thing and Google Docs is the particular kind of object that you're creating there and Google Doc you're essentially I mean it's like Microsoft Word but it's just I mean it's it lives online in the same way now these I think of the three up there I think Mendeley is is the bibliographic management software that is I think most upfront about being shareable all of the programs have ways to share your things with with other people and and when you're writing a group project that's it's good to have it's good to agree on one I mean it just makes it a little bit easier I mean it's not that you can't work together with people who use a different bibliographic management software but good to agree on one and it's often also good to kind of have one person who does the part where you insert the citations into the paper and I don't actually know whether I don't know that I'm pretty sure Sottero does not have an add-in that works together with Google Docs I don't believe the other two do either at this point I don't know whether that's because Google just doesn't want to interact with these programs or whether it just it's code is to lock down so you can't you know make them work together but I mean me if I were doing a group project and using bibliographic management software then I would probably I mean you would go ahead and do your writing and Google and have a little way to just sort of have a little code for okay we're going to put this last name person in there then once you're ready just about finished with the thing I have one person in your group you know put put together put the whole thing into Word and then do the actual then pulling the citations from from the software it's kind of the same way to do it I would say but yeah yeah those and you will know what what he's talking about when you see some of the software's but definitely do get to know those software's because they will they're they're good time savers they are people sort of I mean it's it's amazing you can you can write something for for one journal and they have one style and then if they reject it and you send that thing to another journal you can just take these tools and switch your style like instantly and it's instantly in this other style for the other journal and it saves a lot of time there are no further questions before we go do you know about the writers room those of you who are doing writing there is this wonderful thing but the graduate students have initiated this past year and they're doing it again this year on Thursday evenings at six upstairs on the fourth floor and the beginning of it there'll be a librarian it does like a little 10 minute infomercial about something the library does but mostly it's just like grad students up there writing together talking about you know any problems they're having with writing I'm not sure what all they do out there but they it's them and there and they've got space out there to just get up there and get stuff written so definitely encourage anyone who is writing and and once company in their writing head on up there at a fourth floor 6 o'clock p.m. I I believe the first week they do that is in my beach city I was going to say the last week of September is when they're starting with it again and they'll continue on through the semester I think they even I think they even have some kind of point system or something we're like if you go off and enough you can be eligible for some prize or something I it sounded bad check out its on our calendar of events if you go in sort of the same little system where you signed up to go to this it's there it's the writers room and then of course the same time same place the future weeks we've got hopefully many more workshops that will be helpful for you to get things done and and hopefully as painlessly as possible you can't avoid the pain of graduate school completely but you can definitely keep the purpose to it that helps

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