French Revolution (part 4) – The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte | World history | Khan Academy


We finished the last video
with the Reign of Terror, which lasted essentially from
April of 1793 to July of 1794, where Robespierre himself got
the losing end of the guillotine. So it looks like France was done
with the low point of the Revolution. And that is true, especially
from the point of view of the French people. Then we go into 1795. France is doing well
in its wars with essentially the rest of Europe. And peace is declared with
Prussia and Spain. So the only two major
enemies left are Great Britain and Austria. So slowly, France is dealing
with its enemies. And this was essentially
a victory for France. So France victorious with
this huge citizen army that it created. And then this was in
April of 1795. And then in August of 1795– let
me do that in a different color– in August of 1795,
the new republic constitution gets approved. And it gets ratified through
a vote of the people, which makes France officially
a republic. They don’t need kings anymore. And it set up a governing
structure where the executive was essentially this group
five directors. So the executive is called
the Directory. So you don’t have
one president, you had five directors. And then the legislature, and
this was significant because this was the first bicameral
legislature for France, it had two houses. It had the Council of 500, which
is analogous to the U.S. House of Representatives. It had 500 members in it,
500 representatives. Let me write that down. It was by bicameral. It had two houses, just like
the U.S. Congress. So it’s Council of 500. And then you had your Counsel
of Elders, which had 250 representatives. And that, if you want to view it
from a U.S. point of view, that was analogous to
the U.S. Senate. And the Directory, the
directors, the candidates were submitted by the Council of
500 to of the Council of Elders, who then picked the
five directors– the five people who would essentially
be the executive in France. Already, things are looking
really well. But, even though they had the
military victories, there was still a lot of unrest. You still had Royalist
out there. You still had Great Britain
causing trouble. Great Britain was attacking the
western regions of France. There were Royalists
throughout Paris. And then, in October of 1795,
there was a Royalist uprising. And Royalists are the
people who wanted to bring back the crown. Or they were against the
revolutionary government. And to a large degree, they
weren’t just upset about the fact that the royalty is gone. There were also upset
that they were excluded from the Directory. So it excluded the Royalists. So before the Directory could
even form in any major way, you had a Royalist uprising
in Paris. And they stormed
the Tuileries. This is the same place that you
might remember earlier on, a couple of videos ago, where
the king and queen were in house arrest. And later, they
were assaulted by the revolutionary government. That was this painting
right here. This was only three years ago. This was in 1792 and this is
when they actually took the king and queen prisoner. And then they executed
Louis XVI only a few months after that. So now it was on
the other way. Instead of the royalty being
in the Tuileries, and being sieged by the revolutionaries,
the revolutionary government was in the Tuileries and it was
being sieged by Royalists. And actually, the situation
did not look good for the revolutionary government. They were out numbered. It looked like the Royalists
had better numbers. But lucky for the revolutionary
government, there was a young, very
ambitious, very egotistical, military captain at this point,
who had observed the Siege of the Tuileries when
Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette were captured. And back then, he made
a mental note. He said, they would have been
able to stop the siege if only they had good artillery. Remember, he was an
artillery captain. That’s where he first
became famous. In the Siege of Toulon he was
able to use artillery effectively to suppress
a rebellion. So he was actually observing
this scene three years later. And now, in 1795, as the
revolutionary government is in the Tuileries and the Royalists
are about to essentially take it over,
Napoleon, using what he learned when he observed the
first time, he was able to place cannons and artillery
in such a way. And he shot what they
call grapeshot. And it’s essentially like a
shotgun coming out of a canon. And even though they were
significantly outnumbered by the Royalists, he was
essentially able to mow them down with the canons. So even though you had
more numbers, you had all these cannons. Let me draw one. You had a canon and the actual
ammunition would have these little pellets. That’s why it was called
grapeshot, it looked like a bundle of grapes. And when you shot it out, it
would go in every direction. So you could imagine, it would
just mow down whoever is in the way of the canon. And so essentially, Napoleon
was able to save the revolutionary government. And allow the actual Directory
to come to power. So this once again, Napoleon was
in the right place at the right time. And he was very competent
in military tactics. By all measure he was
egotistical, he narcisistic, but the dude knew what
he was doing. And so Napoleon becomes
even more famous. This event, October 5, 1795
where Napoleon is able to defend the revolutionary
government, this is know as 13 Vendemiaire. I know I’m saying it wrong. But once again, this was the
month of October in the new French Revolutionary Calendar. But it made Napoleon even more
of a national hero, or even revolutionary hero. People are starting to realize
that this guy, he definitely knows what he’s doing. But you could imagine at the
same time, the Directory really didn’t like this dude
hanging around too close to the seats of power. He was obviously ambitious. He was obviously competent. And at some point, he
might be a threat himself to the Directory. So they gave him power. But they made sure that he
was far away from France. So he was essentially
put in charge of the campaign into Italy. Remember, we’re still fighting
Austria and Great Britain. So we’re fighting Austria
in Italy. And Napoleon is made a Commander
in Chief of the Italian forces. And he’s tremendously
successful. This was kind of the least
important front of the war with Austria at this point. But out of all of the generals
of the different fronts, Napoleon is the one that
proves himself to be tremendously innovative
and tactical and an all-route good general. So this Napoleon kicking
butt in Italy. So once again, he becomes
even more famous, even more well known. Eventually, Austria admits that
hey gee, we’re not going to beat the French anymore. They’re really taking care
of us quite well. And they make peace with the
French in October of 1797. The Italian campaign
occurred in 1796. So he defended the
revolutionary government in 1795. He kicks butt in
1796 in Italy. In 1797 there’s peace
with Austria. So you only have Great
Britain left. But this peace with Austria
is actually going to be very temporary. This is from the Treaty
of Campo-Formio. Let me write that down. And once again, this was
peace with Austria. But France was the victor. So this is another
French victory. And the only real enemy left
was Great Britain. But the main problem was that
Great Britain had the dominant navy in the world at the time. So France, and especially
Napoleon, wasn’t in a position to confront Great Britain
on the water. And this was kind of a
controversial decision. In 1798– and remember, the
Directory really didn’t want Napoleon hanging
around France. They’re like OK, you’re hugely
popular, you’re a good general, you’re a
great general. You go do what you want. Whatever you think is proper. So Napoleon gets it into his
head to attack Egypt. And people aren’t 100% sure what
was the main strategic goal of attacking Egypt. So in 1798, he leaves
from Toulon. Remember Toulon was the port
that he helped suppress. He leaves from Toulon, he takes
Malta along the way. And then eventually, he
arrives in Egypt to essentially take over Egypt. And people believe that his
desire to take over Egypt was essentially to, at some
point, undermine the British in India. He’d maybe make some Muslim
allies in Egypt and then maybe befriend some of the Muslim
insurgents, if you will. Especially they were talking
about Tipu Sultan, who he wanted to meet up with and
maybe help undermine the British in India. But people aren’t quite sure. It might have been just Napoleon
having some visions of grandeur. And he wanted to go to Egypt
because Egypt was a formerly great empire. So in 1798, Napoleon
goes to Egypt. These are paintings
of him in Egypt. And once again, he was able to
kind of route the Mamluk forces who are in power
at the time in Egypt. This is the Battle
of the Pyramids. Once again, Napoleon is
hugely successful. Except for one problem. He brings his 20,000 troops into
Egypt, obviously by ship. They’re sitting here, they’re
kicking butt in Egypt. But they’re still at war
with the British. So what the British do, with
their dominant Navy, they send Horatio Nelson in charge
of a fleet. And he comes here where the
French navy was parked. And he just destroys them. So Horatio Nelson destroys
the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile. And this is a depiction. This is Horatio Nelson
right here. This is a depiction of the
Battle of the Nile, which essentially strands Napoleon’s
20,000-person army. They’re stuck in Egypt. So not knowing what else to do–
they can’t leave with all of their forces– Napoleon
then goes into Damascus and Syria. And then he causes all sorts
of havoc in raping and pillaging and whatnot. But still that kind of begs the
question of, how are they going to get back? And you could imagine, for
someone as ambitious and egotistical as Napoleon, he
didn’t really care a lot about what happened to his troops. And so when an opportunity
arose in 1799, he left. He left his entire army. This gives you a lot of view
into Napoleon’s character, that he was willing to leave his
entire army in Egypt and in Syria to essentially be left
to die at the hands of the Ottomans. And then he sneaks his
way back to France. So in 1799, Napoleon goes
back to France. Let me write this down. And once he gets back there, he
sees that the Directory is unbelievably unpopular. And the main reason is the
reason that every government in France throughout this whole
series of videos has been unpopular. People are still hungry. France is still poor. Notice in everything I’ve talked
about, in all of these videos, we still haven’t
addressed the issue that France is essentially broke
and that people are still going hungry. So throughout all of the
violence, all of the wars, the Directory is hugely unpopular. And then a few of the directors,
two in particular, actually three of the directors,
want to plot with Napoleon, who was
hugely popular. And they essentially
plan a coup. And the way that they allow
themselves to come to power is they resign. And then they tell the
legislature that’s meeting at the Tuileries, hey, there’s
a Jacobian revolt and you’re in danger. Why don’t you go to this
estate west of Paris. So that’s Paris, where
they normally meet. They tell them to go to an
estate west of Paris. So the legislature goes
here to this estate. And you’ll be protected
by Napoleon. And they’re protected by
Napoleon and his army. Now once they’re there, Napoleon
goes in and starts making these speeches about
you guys being essentially illegitimate. And he looks like he really
wants to take power. And they just jostle him
out of the room. But once he gets jostled out
of the room, his brother points to the bruises
on Napoleon. He tells the guards outside of
where the legislature is meeting, hey those
guys in there, they’re becoming violent. You have to go in there
and take order. So that convinces
the military. And they go in and they
essentially dissolve the Council of 500. So essentially, you’ve dissolved
the legislature, Napoleon is in charge of the
military that dissolved the legislature. And so that allowed Napoleon
and two of the plotting directors to take power. They became the three
consuls of France. They form the Consulate, or the
new executive of France. And very shortly they’ll have
their own constitution. But this really marks the point
where Napoleon takes power of France. Because even though he took
power with these other two dudes, he eventually is able to
scheme his way to be called First Consul. At which point he is the
authoritarian ruler of France. So we’ve gone from, over the
course of the French Revolution, from 1789 where we
had an absolute monarch in Louis XVI, now we go all the way
to 1799, 10 years later, after all of this bloodshed,
after multiple revolutions and counter revolutions. We end up with Napoleon,
essentially being in charge of France.

96 thoughts on “French Revolution (part 4) – The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte | World history | Khan Academy

  1. I hope you will start continue making videos on Physics and Calculus after this…

  2. no, its bicameral. We have the lower house (house of representatives), which is based off population distribution with each house getting at least one representative.

    Next we have the upper house (Senate), with two senators per state.

    Senate: 100
    House : 435 (+ 6 non voting members)

    House:
    Democrats: 253
    Republicans: 178

    Senate
    Dem : 59
    Repub: 41

  3. I agree. Abolish public schools in America and the world and give every child a laptop programmed to Khanacademy. Imagine the the tens of trillions of dollars in savings on a global scale and not to mention the educational benefits the world would get with all these geniuses in the world. No war, no famine, no poverty, no pollution; just peace and prosperity. Thanks Sal for this potential vision of a whole new planet Earth.

  4. Great video. It's completely different then was reading a history book in school.

  5. I like the idea of teaching history however there is a big difference between history and math, and that is that historians often disagree with one another. They especially strongly disagree about the intentions behind the actions of people and Napoleon is one of these topics they strongly disagree on. To French historians he's a hero while other historians depict him as Hitler. Khan is reasonable moderate though but a bit on the negative side. Khan academy is still great though!

  6. Excellent series, a whole semesters worth of work in a relatively short time. Thank you.

  7. These videos are amazingly helpful for studying for my French Revolution to Napoleon final exam.

  8. I am actually from germany but I just love this video and my presentation tomorrow will be ways better because of this

  9. long live the memory of the emperor of the French people
    the greatest man who ever lived
    Napoleon Bonaparte

  10. The only reason napoleon went back to france wasn't because he was popular. He setup General dumas and hand him over to the ottaman. Dumas was so popular, so he decide to prevent dumas from returning to france. Dumas was going to be the new first consul of france. Napoleon is nothing but a opportunist. Napoleon is no different from hitler. They both are fools.

  11. @Thutmosis7 he was the greatest man the greatest european to ever live
    who does not kill look at rwanda or bosnia or sudan lok at history all any of the races do is slaughter each other its what we do, and the strangest end up on top
    the revoltion top humanity for the first time three steps forward out of barbarism
    europeans were the first society to invent the idea slavery was wrong
    no one else felt it unacceptable it existed in african asia it still exists in the muslim world

  12. @Thutmosis7 The Napoleonic Code — or Code Napoléon (originally, the Code civil des Français) — is the French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force on March 21, 1804.

  13. @Thutmosis7 The Napoleonic Code was not the first legal code to be established in a European country with a civil legal system — it was preceded by the Codex Maximilianeus bavaricus civilis (Bavaria, 1756), the Allgemeines Landrecht (Prussia, 1794) and the West Galician Code, (Galicia, then part of Austria, 1797).

  14. @Thutmosis7 But it was the first modern legal code to be adopted with a pan-European scope and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars. The Code, with its stress on clearly written and accessible law, was a major step in replacing the previous patchwork of feudal laws. Historian Robert Holtman regards it as one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world.
    did hitler leave such a legacy of equality and justice ?

  15. @Thutmosis7 the directorate tried to apply enlightenment principles something no other culture did, but there was chaos, napoleon established order for the mobs
    two steps forward one step back you cannot judge him by modern standards he had to deal with mobs of cannibals who were little bette than animals , people were not ready for democracy yet but his reforms created conditions so that slavery could be abolished in 1848
    and we can have democracy and freedm in europe and the world

  16. @Thutmosis7 Napoleon emancipated Jews from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers. Despite the anti-semitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.

  17. @Thutmosis7 He stated "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country. It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them." He was seen as so favourable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church formally condemned him as "Antichrist and the Enemy of God" – does this not sound the opposite of hitler? you are a fool sir

  18. @MrBillcale Dude napoleon did nothing. Maybe for you he was a hero, but to the world he was a idiot. The reason why the world is in the bad mess today, are the result of europeon colonalism. The same goes for arabism. Had europeons stay north and arab stay in their asia area, the world would be a better place. So forth they both change history and enslaved, kidnapped and murdered millions of people together. That's unforgiven.

  19. @MrBillcale ANcient africans didn't enslaved people like how you think. What you call slaves are not what you would call in ancient time. ROmans probably did, but not africans. Africans live peacefully for many thousand of yrs side by side. It was the arabs and then the europeons came and steer things up. Created division and different classes of people. The rwanda incident was the result of the french. They went there and steer things up.

  20. @MrBillcale Europeons didn't brought civilization with them, cuz they are not civil peoples. We all know that. To make claims they without them passing some laws the world wouldn't be better its ridiculous. Cuz in truth all that you mention the idea of democrazy came to europe through the egyptians priest who thought the greeks. But then they lost it, and it was the moors who were majority black african people came back with it. It's not new to africans, its ancient way of living.

  21. Like i said before napoleon was a opportunist. He was not suppose to be emperor of france. It was dumas. But saying things about jews getting rights is ridiculous. Cuz it's the same jews been controlling the money before napoleon was born.

  22. @Thutmosis7 every piece of technology you use was invented by a european
    every arguement you use to protest injutice was created by a european
    africans were running naked eating each other no written language no use of the wheel there was no society on earth that did NOT accept slavery as part of the social order the whole idea that slavery was immoral and people are equal is a concept invented by europeans not you, we gave you everything your clothing the language you speak

  23. The portrayal of Napoleon is pretty negative in this one. It's funny how one side reveres him as the greatest man since Julius Ceasar, an intellectual, a reformer and saviour of the virtues of the revolution (or something along those lines) etc etc, and the others consider him a corrupt character, tyrant, warmonger etc..

  24. @Thutmosis7 Your knowledge of history is a little sketchy.
    Napoleon was certainly not an idiot. In many respects he can be considered a genius … simple as that. You don't have to revere him as @MrBillcale does to recognise that.
    Don't make the mistake

    "Africans live peacefully for many thousand of yrs side by side." In a sense, yeah, war is an invention of civilizations, but at the same time civilization is what drives human progress. We couldn't have this discussion without it.

  25. @Thutmosis7 "But then they lost it, and it was the moors who were majority black african people came back with it. It's not new to africans, its ancient way of living."
    I doubt the Moors were majority black africans. Also, modern Europe received most of the classical knowledge of things like democracy and republicanism, as well as a whole bunch of other philosophies through Byzantine scholars mainly. They ushered in the Renaissance in Italy.

  26. @MrBillcale You don't have a civilized discussion like that. C'mon, stick to plain historical facts without becoming a condescending ass.

  27. @PhotoPlankton Nonsense there were no higher learning in europe prior before the moors arrival there. Many moors after their fall or before that went up into germany, italy, and france and spread wisdom. The first university in europe came from the moors, not vaticans. Plus the headquarter of italy was in turkey, not rome. The europeons benefit alot from the moors than the byzantine which is nothing but nonsense. It's the moors who brought in the renaissance age in europe.

  28. Europeons didn't do anything. There were no school in europe prior before the moors arrival. They were always illiterate and dark mentally and still is today.

  29. @PhotoPlankton Yes moors were black african. Even a french king said that after he stopped them at a certain point in the battle. Moors did conquered all of spain, portugal and southern france. Their influence was felt alot by the europeons. Without the moors the europeons would still be in cave and suffering from the bubonic plague they got from the nasty lifestyle of living.

  30. @Thutmosis7 You appear to be right, to an extend. I always assumed that they were mostly Arabs and Berbers, but the definition of what a Berber seems to have changed over time. Nonetheless, the moors were a diverse people comprised of all sorts of African tribes and not just Black Africans.

    The Muslims never conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula.

    I agree that most of Europe was underdeveloped. The "Middle East" and North Africa were clearly far more advanced at the time.

  31. @Thutmosis7 What about the Roman and Greek civilization?
    After the fall of Rome it went downhill for Europe (apart from the Byzantine Empire perhaps) and that's why the period is called the Dark Ages. The moors certainly introduced a lot of knowledge into Europe, but as I said, it's only really with the arrival of Byzantine scholars and the invention of the Printing Press that Europe starts to overtake the rest of the world (which it factually does; socially, economically, and technologically)

  32. @PhotoPlankton Not to take away some of your thunder. But what do you expect when they all went to the school of the moors? Wouldn't they come back with some to build on. So yea they were educated by the moors and they use it as their advantage and disadvantage against the own masters which is the moors. In the play Othello, Shakespeare depicted him as black and wasn't he a moor? So the europeons knew who the moors were. Its until the late 19th century they change it to arab or white.

  33. @Thutmosis7 Again, I am not disputing that the moors brought knowledge with them. Though, the main reason they were overrun in the end (the "Reconquista" took centuries) were manpower issues and a lack of political unity.
    I need to ask you to offer a credible source that describes the moors as all black African. I cannot find one. Again, I am not disputing that there were many black moors, but not all of them were.
    Please don't waste my time if this is all just misguided racism.

  34. @PhotoPlankton I can't remember the king name. But it's a king in france during the dark age describing the moors as black as ink. So i know right there. But anyway i am not going to get into this cuz it's getting old arguing over something that happen over a thousand yr ago.

  35. @Nicksvoiceinthewild I could careless about the past. My focus has always been about the future. The only thing the past can tell me is who the real enemies of my people are. I already know the answer to that. But i would love to see a more unity amongst all people in the near future. I doubt we are going back to the period of the revolution. I highly doubt that will happen. Anyway Godbless

  36. does this person play empire total war??? id you dont GET IT! you would be veryyy veryyy good at this game!

  37. @pongman
    Yes, but there is a flaw, the world's population will become social shut ins and you can kiss goodbye social diversity. Just imagined that, however I do love khanacademy videos, I just believe your thought is a little bit to extreme.

  38. we do this in school. and it bores me to death. cuz its morning and the lights are off and all im thinking about is…SLEEP

  39. I studied all this in school, but I had no idea what my teacher was blabbering on about. He used no visual aids at all, so I had no clue which part of Europe he was referring to. Not to mention, the map of Europe was very different from what it is today.

  40. at 5:50-6:10 i know your drawing a canon.. but thumbs up if you think it looks like something else 😉 GREAT VID btw!!

  41. @pongman what about human interaction; what experiences will advocate that complex part of life?

  42. @pongman you forget with lack of diversity of education lacks the diversity if different views and growth of individualism. If you want too stop famines, humanitys populations need too drop and be maintianed at a low level since humanity doesnt live in balance with nature it will over populate and only cause its own harm. secound wars are more caused by those in power than for any other reason now adays, and even an education will not change humanitys cowardness and submissiveness towards dictat

  43. Woop! We showed the French to not fuck with us. After this war, the French DID learn to never fuck with us again.

  44. The wealth of the Kahal exerts itself through the Freemasons.
    And the Freemasons exert themselves locally through the Jacobins.
    And the Jacobins exert themselves through the revolution which directs Napoleon to Egypt.

    The first real scientific exploration of Egypt follows in the wake of Napoleon which is what the Kahal desired all along.

  45. @LegitScience Of course they also wanted the end of the Holy Roman Empire and the end of Tzarist Russia.

  46. @LegitScience Liberte, Egalita, Fraternite = Dictatorship of the proletariat = bank owned world. Thanks for nothing Rothschild.

  47. what was the logic behind the revolutionaries..? Why would one ever want kings and queens..?

  48. Thanks I have an exam tomorrow on French Revolution and this video series really helped me! btw I would like to ask you which software did you use for making these videos?

  49. Basically just saved my life since I have my A level France in revolution exam in about 8 hours and my teacher has taught me barely anything in a year. Thank you SO much!

  50. I love your Videos – They are a great teaching tool!!! I wish you would also look at Napoleon in more depth in these areas: his domestic reforms – Constitutional Changes – Religious – Economic etc, Also the Different Constitutions 18000, 1802, 1804, 1815, and just his system of Government: police, censorship and opposition to Napoleon. This would make revising for my students much more entertaining that listening to me!

  51. My brother is home-schooled and he's more mature than most of the boys I know who go to an actual school here. He's a well-rounded individual with great self-esteem (which school has beaten out of me). I have several friends who are home-schooled. Socialising for them isn't difficult but you do have to find extra-curriculars to socialise. I agree that it's good get out and not rely on computers for education however. Also they learn quicker because they have one on one time with the teacher.

  52. Napoleon attacked egypt to suppress british trade, ends up spreading ideas of enlightenment to egyptian beaurocracy.

  53. Pre-revolution french peasents were comparitively better off than other european nations. They arent that hungry, more pissed than hungry

  54. So did no-one bother to ask Napoleon what happened to the 20 000 conscripts he brought with him on his ego war to Egypt?
    That's some good politics, go from abandoning the men who fought and died for you to being in charge of a whole nation

  55. Thank you so much for this 4 part video series. I would be lost without the visuals, spellings, maps; you make it all easier to grasp. Blessings.

  56. "…but the dude knew what he was doing…" lol 😀

  57. What happened o the 20000 troops because it would take pretty long to kill each one of them

  58. stop saying "begs the question" you're using that incorrectly

    intro to phil would do you some good.

    or google it…

  59. I actually hate history ,but I am actually kind a like it after seeing this series of clips

  60. Wait… Horatio Nelson, British navy, Ships of the Line in the painting… HORNBLOWER! (Mr. Midshipman Hornblower is a book by C.S. Forester, no not the game of thrones kind)

  61. Terrible lesson on Napoleon. The presenter doesn't know anything.

  62. Khan Academy instead of just spouting lies and misinformation why don't you read a book on Napoleon.

  63. Hope this series helps! I have an AP European History midterm tomorrow over The French Revolution, hope I do well.

  64. You're technically my teacher for social — you've taught me more than my social teacher.

  65. This 4-part video series was absolutely fabulous. Well done. Thank you.

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