Glasgow | Wikipedia audio article



Glasgow Scots Glasgow less Scottish Gaelic glass ooh KL as shoe is the most populous city in Scotland and the third most populous city in the United Kingdom as of the 2017 estimated city population of 620 1020 historically part of land ERK sheer the city now forms the Glasgow City Council area one of the 32 council areas of Scotland the local authority is Glasgow City Council Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands inhabitants of the city are referred to as glass regions or wee geez it is the fifth most visited city in the UK Glasgow is also known for the Glasgow patter a distinct dialect of the Scots language that is noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland and 10th largest by tonnage in Britain expanding from the medieval bishopric and Royal Borough and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the 15th century it became a major centre of the Scottish enlightenment in the 18th century from the 18th century onwards the city also grew is one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies with the onset of the Industrial Revolution the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded rapidly to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals textiles and engineering most notably in the shipbuilding & marine engineering industry which produced many innovative and famous vessels Glasgow was the second city of the British Empire for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period although many cities argue the title was theirs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow's population grew rapidly reaching a peak of 1 million 127 thousand eight hundred twenty-five people in 1938 comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns such as come Renault Livingston East Kilbride and peripheral suburbs followed by successive boundary changes reduced the population city of Glasgow Council area to an estimated six hundred fifteen thousand seventy with 1 million two hundred nine thousand one hundred forty three people living in the Greater Glasgow urban area the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1 million eight hundred thousand people equated to around thirty three percent of Scotland's population the city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at four thousand twenty three per square kilometres Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018 and is also well known in the sporting world for football particularly the Old Firm rivalry between Celtic and Rangers rugby athletics tennis golf and swimming topic etymology the origin of the name Glasgow is disputed it is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbre class cow or a middle Gaelic cognate which would have meant green basin or Green Valley the settlement probably had an earlier kumbhak name Cathars the modern name appears for the first time in the Gaelic period 1116 as Glasgow it is also recorded that the king of Strathclyde Ritter Hale welcomed Saint Kent a gern also known as Saint Mungo and procured his consecration as Bishop about 540 for some 13 years Kent again labored in the region building his church at the Mulund and arteburn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands and making many converts a large community developed around him and became known as Glasgow often glossed s the dear green or dear green place you topic history topic origins and development the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing the Romans later built outposts in the area and to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia constructed the Antonine wall items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Baldy can be found at the hunt area Museum today Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century he established a church on the Mulund and arteburn where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands and in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre Glasgow grew over the following centuries the Glasgow fair reportedly began in the year 1190 the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285 giving its name to the brig a area of the city forming the main north-south route over the river via Glasgow cross the founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 an elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth its early trade was in agriculture brewing and fishing with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the convention of royal boroughs the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the trades house in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier merchants gilts who established their merchants house in the same year glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of royal borough in 1611 glasgow substantial fortunes came from international trade manufacturing an invention starting in the 17th century with sugar followed by tobacco and then cotton and linen products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book aid tour throw the whole island of Great Britain that Glasgow was the cleanest and beautifulest and best built city in Britain London accepted at that time the city's population was about 12,000 and the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric brought about by the Scottish enlightenment and Industrial Revolution topic trading port after the acts of Union in 1707 Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire and Glasgow became prominent as a hub of international trade to and from the Americas especially in sugar tobacco cotton and manufactured goods the city's tobacco lords created a deepwater port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde as the river within the city itself was then too shallow by the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgow's River Clyde with over 47 million pounds 21,000 T of tobacco being imported each year at its peak at the time Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar tobacco and later cotton topic industrialization the opening of the Mullen canal and basin linking to the 4th and Clyde canal at Port Dundas in 1795 facilitated access to the extensive iron ore and coal mines in Lanark sheer after extensive River engineering projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far as Glasgow shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches of the river pioneered by industrialists such as Robert Napier John elder George Thompson Sir William Pierce and sir Alfred Yarra the river clyde also became an important source of inspiration for artists such as John Atkinson Grimshaw John Knox James K Sir Muirhead bone Robert Eddy Stanley Spencer and LS Lowry willing to depict the new industrial era in the modern world Glasgow's population had surpassed that of edinburgh by 1821 the development of civic institutions included the city of Glasgow police in 1800 one of the first municipal police forces in the world despite the crisis caused by the city of Glasgow banks collapse in 1878 growth continued and by the end of the 19th century it was one of the cities known as the second city of the Empire and was producing more than half Britain's tonnage of shipping and a quarter of all locomotives in the world in addition to its preeminence in shipbuilding engineering industrial machinery bridge building chemicals explosives coal and oil industries it developed as a major Centre in textiles garment making carpet manufacturing leather processing furniture making pottery food drink and cigarette making printing and publishing shipping banking insurance and professional services expanded at the same time Glasgow became one of the first cities in Europe to reach a population of 1 million the city's new trades and sciences attracted new residents from across the lowlands and the highlands of Scotland from Ireland and other parts of Britain and from continental Europe during this period the construction of many of the city's greatest architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering projects such as the mill Navy water treatment works Glasgow subway Glasgow Corporation tramways City Chambers Mitchell library and kelvingrove art gallery and museum were being funded by its wealth the city also held a series of international exhibitions at Kelvin Grove Park in 1888 1901 and 1911 with Britain's last major international exhibition the Empire Exhibition being subsequently held in 1938 at Bella Houston Park which drew 13 million visitors the 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city after World War one the city suffered from the impact of the post-world War one recession and from the later Great Depression this also led to a rise of radical socialism in the Red Clyde side movement the city had recovered by the outbreak of World War two and grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the 1950s by the 1960s growth of industry in countries like Japan and West Germany weakened the ones preeminent position of many of the city's industries as a result of this Glasgow entered a lengthy period of relative economic decline and rapid industrialization leading to high unemployment urban decay population decline welfare dependency and poor health for the city's inhabitants there were active attempts at regeneration of the city when the Glasgow corporation published its controversial Bruce Report which set out a comprehensive series of initiatives aimed at turning around the decline of the city the report led to a huge and radical programme of rebuilding and regeneration efforts that started in the mid-1950s and lasted into the late 1970s this involved the mass demolition of the city's infamous slums and their replacement with large suburban housing estates and tower blocks the city invested heavily in roads infrastructure with an extensive system of arterial roads and motorways that bisected the central area there are also accusations that the Scottish office had deliberately attempted to undermine Glasgow's economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting inward investment in new industries to other regions during the Silicon Glen boom in creating the new towns of come Renauld Glen rathus Irvine Livingston and East Kilbride dispersed across the Scottish lowlands to have the city's population base by the late 1980s there had been a significant resurgence in Glasgow's economic fortunes the Glasgow's miles better campaign launched in 1983 an opening of the Burrell collection in 1983 and Scottish exhibition and Conference Centre in 1985 facilitated Glasgow's new role as a European Centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in tourism and inward investment the latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the cities Glasgow garden festival in 1988 its status as European city of Culture in 1990 and concerted attempts to diversify the city's economy however it is the industrial heritage that serves as key tourism enabler wider economic revival has persisted in the ongoing regeneration of inner-city areas including the large-scale Clyde waterfront regeneration has led to more affluent people moving back to live in the center of Glasgow fueling allegations of gentry occasion in 2008 the city was listed by Lonely Planet as one of the world's top ten tourist cities despite Glasgow's economic Renaissance the east end of the city remains the focus of social deprivation a Glasgow economic audit report published in 2007 stated that the gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening in 2006 47% of Glasgow's population lived in the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland while the center for social justice reported 29.4 percent of the city's working aged residents to be economically inactive although marginally behind the UK average Glasgow still has a higher employment rate than Birmingham Liverpool and Manchester in 2008 the city was ranked at 43 for personal safety in the Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world the Mercer report was specifically looking at quality of living yet by 2011 within glasgow certain areas were still failing to meet the scottish air quality objective levels for nitrogen dioxide no2 and particulate matter PM 10 you topic sanitation with the population growing the first scheme to provide a public water supply was by the Glasgow company in 1806 a second company was formed in 1812 and the two merged in 1838 but there was some dissatisfaction with the quality of the water supplied the Gorbals gravitation Water Company began supplying water to residents living to the south of the River Clyde in 1846 obtained from reservoirs which gave 75,000 people a constant water supply but others were not so fortunate and some 4,000 died in an outbreak of cholera in 1848 18-49 this led to the development of the Glasgow corporation waterworks with a project to raise the level of luck Catrin and to convey clean water by gravity along a 26 mile 42 kilometers equi dock to a holding reservoir at Mill Gayye V and then by pipes into the city the project cost nine hundred eighty thousand pounds and was opened by Queen Victoria in 1859 the engineer for the project was John Frederick Bateman while James Morris Gail became the resident engineer for the city section of the project and subsequently became engineer in chief for Glasgow water commissioners he oversaw several improvements during his tenure including a second aqueduct and further raising of water levels in loch katrine additional supplies were provided by loch arkla in 1902 by impounding the water and creating a tunnel to allow water to flow into loch katrine a similar scheme to create a reservoir in glen Finglas was authorized in 1903 but was deferred and was not completed until 1965 following the 2002 Glasgow floods the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium was found in the reservoir at Mill Gayye V and so the new mill Navy water treatment works was built it was opened by Queen Elizabeth in 2007 and won the 2007 utility industry achievement award having been completed ahead of its time schedule and 410 million pounds below its budgeted cost good health requires both clean water and effective removal of sewage the Caledonian railway rebuilt many of the sewers as part of a deal to allow them to tunnel under the city and sewage treatment works were opened at Dalmar neck in 1894 down near in 1904 and she in 1910 the works experimented to find better ways to treat sewage and a number of experimental filters were constructed until a full activated sludge plant was built between 1962 and 1968 at a cost of 4 million pounds treated sludge was dumped at sea and glasgow corporation owned six led ships between 1904 and 1998 when the EU urban waste water treatment directive ended the practice the sewerage infrastructure was improved significantly in 2017 with the completion of a tunnel 3.1 miles 5.0 kilometers long which provides 20 million Imperial gallons 90 mega litres of stormwater storage it will reduce the risk of flooding and the likelihood that sewage will overflow into the Clyde during storms since 2002 clean water provision and sewage have been the responsibility of Scottish water topic heraldry the coat of arms of the city of Glasgow was granted to the royal borough by the Lord Lyon on the 25th of October 1866 it incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of Glasgow's patron saint Mungo which had been used on official seals prior to that date the emblems represent miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are listed in the traditional rhyme here's the bird that never flew here's the tree that never grew here's the bell that never rang here's the fish that never swastika sermon containing the words Lord let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising of thy name this was abbreviated to let Glasgow flourish and adopted as the city's motto in 1450 John Stuart the First Lord Provost of Glasgow left an endowment zaveta st. Mungo's Bell could be made and told throughout the city so that the citizens would pray for his soul a new Bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and that Bell is still on display in the People's Palace Museum near Glasgow Green the supporters are two salmon bearing rings and the crest is a half length figure of Saint Mungo he wears a bishops mitre and liturgical vestments and has his hand raised in the act of benediction the original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm but this was removed in subsequent grants the current version 1996 has a gold mural crown between the shield and the crest this form of coronet resembling an embattled city wall was allowed to the for Area councils with city status the arms were rima tricky lated by the city of Glasgow District Council on the 6th of February 1975 and by the present Area Council on the 25th of March 1996 the only change made on each occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms topic government and politics topic local government although Glasgow corporation had been a pioneer in the municipal socialist movement from the late 19th century since the representation of the People Act 1918 Glasgow increasingly supported left-wing ideas and politics at a national level the City Council was controlled by the Labour Party for over 30 years since the decline of the progressives since 2007 when local government elections in Scotland began to use the single transferable vote rather than the first-past-the-post system the dominance of the Labour Party within the city started to decline as a result of the 2017 UK local elections the SNP was able to form a minority administration ending Labour's 37 years of uninterrupted control in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the German Revolution of 1918-1919 stir with one uprising in January 1919 prompting the liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George to deploy 10,000 soldiers and tanks on the city streets a huge demonstration in the cities George Square on the 31st of January ended in violence after the riot act was read industrial action that the shipyards gave rise to the Red Clyde Side epithet during the 1930s Glasgow was the main base of the Independent Labour Party towards the end of the 20th century it became a center of the struggle against the poll tax which was introduced in Scotland a whole year before the rest of the United Kingdom and also served as the main base of the Scottish Socialist Party another left-wing political party in Scotland the city has not had a Conservative MP since the 1982 he'll head by election when the SDP took the seat which was in Glasgow's most affluent area the fortunes of the Conservative Party continued to decline into the 21st century winning only one of the 79 counselors on Glasgow City Council in 2012 despite having been the controlling party as the progressives from 1969 to 1972 when Sir Donald little was the last non-labor Lord Provost Glasgow is represented in both the House of Commons in London and the Scottish Parliament in Holyrood Edinburgh at Westminster it is represented by seven members of parliament MPs all elected at least once every five years to represent individual constituencies using the first-past-the-post system of voting in Holyrood Glasgow is represented by sixteen msps of whom nine are elected to represent individual constituencies once every four years using first-past-the-post and seven are elected as additional regional members by proportional representation since the Scottish Parliament election 2016 Glasgow is represented at Holyrood by nine Scottish National Party MSPs for Labour MSPs two conservative MSPs and one Scottish Green MSP in the European Parliament the city forms part of the Scotland constituency which elects six members of the European Parliament topic central government since Glasgow is covered and operates under two separate central government's the devolved Scottish Parliament in UK government they determine various matters that Glasgow City Council is not responsible for topic Scottish Parliament the Glasgow electoral region of the Scottish Parliament covers the Glasgow City Council area the Rutherglen area of the South Lanarkshire and a small eastern portion of Renfrew sure it elects nine of the parliaments seventy-three first-past-the-post constituency members and seven of the 56 additional members both kinds of member are known as members of the Scottish Parliament MSPs the system of election is designed to produce a form of proportional representation the first-past-the-post seats were created in 1999 with the names and boundaries of then existing Westminster House of Commons constituencies in 2005 the number of Westminster members of parliament and peace' representing Scotland was cut to 59 with new constituencies being formed while the existing number of MSPs was retained at Holyrood in the 2011 Scottish Parliament election the boundaries of the Glasgow region were redrawn currently the nine Scottish Parliament constituencies in the Glasgow electoral region are Glasgow and Iceland Glasgow Cathcart Glasgow Kelvin Glasgow Mary Hill and Spring burn Glasgow Pollack Glasgow Provan Glasgow shuttle stone Glasgow Southside Rutherglen at the 2016 Scottish Parliament election all nine of these constituencies were won by Scottish National Party MSPs on the regional vote the Glasgow electoral region is represented by four Labour MSPs two conservative MSPs and one green MSP topic UK Westminster Parliament following reform of constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Westminster in 2005 which reduced the number of Scottish members of parliament MPs the current Westminster constituency x' representing glasgow are glasgow central Glasgow east glasgow north glasgow north-east glasgow northwest glasgow south glasgow southwest following the 2014 Scottish independence referendum in which fifty three point four nine percent of the electorate of Glasgow voted in favour of Scottish independence the SNP won every constituency in the city at the 2015 general election including a record-breaking 39.3% swing from Labour to S&P in the seat of Glasgow northeast since the 2017 snap election Glasgow is currently represented by six Scottish National Party MPs and one Labour MP the Glasgow North East constituency which had a record 39.3% swing from Labour to S&P at the previous general election was regained by Paul Sweeney of the Labour Party who narrowly defeated sitting SNP MP and McLaughlin by 242 votes topic referendums in the Scottish independence referendum Glasgow voted yes by a margin of fifty three point five percent to forty six point five percent in the brexit referendum results varied from constituency to constituency Glasgow north recorded the biggest remain vote with 78 percent opting to stay in the EU whilst in Glasgow east this figure dropped to 56 percent the smallest remain vote in Scotland the city as a whole voted to remain in the EU by sixty six point six percent to thirty three point three percent topic turnout voter turnout has often been lower in Glasgow than in the rest of the United Kingdom in the referendum of 2014 turnout was 75 percent the lowest in Scotland in the brexit referendum the city's voters while joining the rest of Scotland and voting to remain part of the EU again had a low turnout of 56.2% although SNP MPs Robertson placed this in the historical context of traditional low turnout in Glasgow in the 2015 general election the six Scottish constituencies with the lowest turnout were all in Glasgow turnout further decreased in the 2017 election when five of the city's seven seats reported a lowered turnout topic geography Glasgow is located on the banks of the River Clyde in west central Scotland its second most important river as the Kelvin whose name was used in creating the title of Baron Kelvin and thereby ended up as the SI unit of temperature on the older maps Glasgow is shown within the area of the pre 197 5 county of lanark sheer from 1975 to 1996 it appears within Strathclyde region more recent maps generally show Glasgow as one of 32 council areas in Scotland topic location Glasgow is located in the central belt of Scotland topic climate despite its northerly latitude similar to that of Moscow glass goes climate is classified as oceanic Copan cfb data is available online for three official weather stations in the Glasgow area Paisley Abbott's in chin Bishop ttan all are located to the west of the city center owing to its westerly position and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean Glasgow is one of Scotland's milder areas temperatures are usually higher than in most places of equal latitude away from the UK due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream however this results in less distinct seasons as compared to much of Western Europe at Paisley the annual precipitation average is 1245 millimetres 49.0 and winters are cool and overcast with a January mean of 5.0 degrees Celsius 40 1.0 degrees Fahrenheit the lows sometimes fall below freezing since 2000 Glasgow has experienced few very cold snowy and harsh winters where temperatures have fallen much below freezing the most extreme instances have however seen temperatures around minus 12 degrees Celsius 10 degrees Fahrenheit in the area snowfall accumulation is infrequent and short-lived the spring months March to May are usually mild and often quite pleasant many of Glasgow's trees and plants begin to flower at this time of the year in parks and gardens are filled with spring colours during the summer months June to August the weather can vary considerably from day to day ranging from relatively cool and wet to quite warm with the odd sunny day long dry spells of warm weather are generally quite scarce overcast in humid conditions without rain or frequent generally the weather pattern is quite unsettled and erratic during these months with only occasional heat waves the warmest month is usually July with average highs above 20 degrees Celsius 68 degrees Fahrenheit summer days can occasionally reach up to 27 degrees Celsius 81 degrees Fahrenheit and very rarely exceed 30 degrees Celsius 86 degrees Fahrenheit autumns are generally cool to mild with increasing precipitation during early autumn there can be some settled periods of weather it can feel pleasant with mild temperatures and some sunny days the official Met Office data series goes back to 1959 and shows that there only have been a few warm and no hot summers in Glasgow in stark contrast to areas further south in Great Britain and eastwards in Europe the warmest month on record in the data series as July 2006 with an average high of 22 point 7 degrees Celsius 72 point 9 degrees Fahrenheit and low of 13 point seven degrees Celsius 56 point seven degrees Fahrenheit even this extreme event only matched a normal summer on similar parallels in continental Europe underlining the maritime influences the coldest month on record since the data series began as December 2010 during a severe cold wave affecting the British Isles even then the December high was above freezing at one point six degrees Celsius thirty-four point nine degrees Fahrenheit with the low of minus four point four degrees Celsius 24 point one degrees Fahrenheit this still ensured glass goes coldest month of 2010 remained milder than the isotherm of minus three degrees Celsius 27 degrees Fahrenheit normally used to determine continental climate normals temperature extremes have ranged from minus nineteen point nine degrees Celsius minus four degrees Fahrenheit to thirty-one point two degrees Celsius eighty-eight degrees Fahrenheit at Abbott's inch and minus fourteen point eight degrees Celsius five degrees Fahrenheit to thirty 1.0 degrees Celsius eighty eight degrees Fahrenheit at Paisley the coldest temperature to have occurred in recent years was minus twelve point five degrees Celsius nine point five degrees Fahrenheit at Bishop tindering December 2010 however the highest temperature ever recorded was thirty one point nine degrees Celsius 89 degrees Fahrenheit at Bishop tan on the 28th of June 2018 topic demographics in the 1950s the population of the city of Glasgow area peaked at 1 million 89,000 Glasgow was then one of the most densely populated cities in the world after the 1960s clearances of poverty-stricken inner-city areas like the Gorbals and relocation to new towns such as East Kilbride in Cumberland led to population decline in addition the boundaries of the city were changed twice during the late 20th century making direct comparisons difficult the city continues to expand beyond the city council boundaries into surrounding suburban areas encompassing around 400 square miles 1040 square kilometers of all adjoining suburbs if commuter towns and villages are included there are two distinct definitions for the population of Glasgow the Glasgow City Council area which lost the districts of Rutherglen and Cambus Laing to South Lanarkshire in 1996 and the Greater Glasgow urban area which includes the conurbation around the city Glasgow's population influx in the 18th and 19th centuries was related to economic expansion as well as internally generated growth with the vast majority of newcomers to the city from outside Scotland being from Ireland especially the northwestern counties of Donegal Fermanagh Tyrone and Derry in the 1881 UK census 83% of the population was born in Scotland 13% in Ireland 3% in England and 1% elsewhere by 1911 the city was no longer gaining population by migration the demographic percentages in the 1951 UK census were born in Scotland 93 percent Ireland 3% England 3% and elsewhere 1% in the early 20th century many Lithuanian refugees began to settle in Glasgow and at its height in the 1950s there were around 10,000 in the Glasgow area many Italian Scots also settled in Glasgow originating from provinces like frozen own between Rome and Naples in lucca in northwest tuscany at this time many originally working as hokey-pokey men historical population and city limits in the 1960's and 1970's many Asians also settled in Glasgow mainly in the Pollack Shields area these number 30,000 Pakistanis 15,000 Indians and 3,000 Bangladeshis as well as Chinese people many of whom settled in the garnet Hill area of the city since 2000 the UK government has pursued a policy of dispersal of asylum seekers to ease pressure on social housing in the London area the city is also home to some 8400 6 1.4 2% polls since the United Kingdom census 2001 the population decline has been reversed the population was static for a time but due to migration from other parts of Scotland as well as emigration from overseas the population has begun to grow the population of the City Council area was 590 3245 in 2011 and around 2 million 300,000 people live in the Glasgow travel to work area this area is defined as consisting of over 10% of residents travelling into Glasgow to work and as without fixed boundaries the population density of London following the 2011 census was recorded as 5200 people per square kilometre while 3395 people per square kilometer were registered in Glasgow in 1931 the population density was 16,000 166 per square miles 6000 242 per square kilometres highlighting the clearances into the suburbs and new towns that were built to reduce the size of one of Europe's most densely populated cities in 2005 Glasgow had the lowest life expectancy of any UK city at 72 point nine years much was made of this during the 2008 Glasgow East by-election in 2008 a World Health Organization report about health inequalities revealing that male life expectancy varied from 54 years in countin to 82 years in nearby Lenzi East Dunbartonshire topic areas and suburbs topic city center the city center is bounded by the high street to the east the river-clyde to the south and the m8 motorway to the west and north which was built through the town head Charing Cross Calkins and Anderson areas in the 1960s topic retail and theater district the city center is based on a grid system of streets on the north bank of the River Clyde the heart of the city is George Square site of many of glass goes public statues and the elaborate Victorian Glasgow City Chambers headquarters of Glasgow City Council to the south and west are the shopping precincts of Argyle Street Saatchi Hall Street and Buchanan Street the last featuring more upmarket retailers and winner of the academy of urbanism great Street award 2008 the collection of shops around these streets accumulate to become known as the style mile the main shopping areas include Buchanan Street Buchanan galleries linking Buchanan Street and Saatchi Hall Street and the st. Enoch Centre linking Argyle Street and st. Enoch square with the upmarket princes Square which specifically features shops such as Ted Baker Radley and Kirk Geiger the Italian Centre in Ingram Street also specializes in designer labels Glasgow's retail portfolio forms the UK's second largest and most economically important retail sector after central London the city centre is home to most of Glasgow's main cultural venues the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall Glasgow City Hall Theatre Royal performing home of Scottish opera and Scottish Ballet the Pavilion Theatre the King's Theatre Glasgow film theatre tron theatre gallery of modern art Goma Mitchell librarian theatre the Centre for Contemporary Arts McLellan galleries and the lighthouse museum of architecture the world's tallest cinema the 18 screened Cineworld is situated on Renfrew Street the city centre is also home to four of glass goes higher education institutions the University of Strathclyde the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland Glasgow School of Art and Glasgow Caledonian University and – the largest College in Britain the city of Glasgow College in Cathedral Street topic merchants city to the east is the commercial and residential district of merchant city the merchant city was formerly the residential district of the wealthy city merchants in the 18th and early 19th centuries particularly the tobacco lords from whom many of the streets take their name as the Industrial Revolution and the wealth had brought to the city resulted in the expansion of Glasgow central area westward the original medieval centre was left behind Glasgow cross situated at the junction of High Street Gallowgate Tron gate and salt market was the original centre of the city symbolized by its mercat cross Glasgow cross encompasses the toll booth clock tower all that remains of the original city chambers which was destroyed by fire in 1926 moving northward up High Street towards Rotten Row and town head lies the 15th century Glasgow Cathedral in the province lordship due to growing industrial pollution levels in the mid to late 19th century the area fell out of favour with residents from the late 1980s onwards the merchant city has been rejuvenated with luxury city centre flats and warehouse conversions this regeneration has supported an increasing number of cafes and restaurants the area is also home to a number of high-end boutique style shops and some of Glasgow's most upmarket stores the merchant City as the center of glass goes growing cultural quarter based on King Street the salt market and Tron Gate and at the heart of the annual merchant city festival the area has supported a huge growth in art galleries the origins of which can be found in the late 1980s when it attracted artists led organizations that could afford the cheap rents required to operate in vacant manufacturing or retail spaces the artistic and cultural potential of the merchant City as a cultural quarter was harnessed by independent arts organisations and Glasgow City Council and the recent development of tron gate 103 which houses galleries workshops artists studios and production spaces is considered a major outcome of the continued partnership between both the area also contains a number of theatres and concert venues including the Tron theatre the old fruit market the trades Hall st. Andrews in the square merchant Square and the city halls topic financial district ifs D to the western edge of the city center occupying the areas of Blythewood Hill and Anderson lies Glasgow's financial district known officially as the international financial services district ifs D although often irreverently nicknamed by the contemporary press as the square kilometre or Wall Street on Clyde since the late 1980s the construction of many modern office blocks and high-rise developments have paved the way for the IFS D to become one of the UK's largest financial quarters with a reputation as an established financial services center coupled with comprehensive support services Glasgow continues to attract and grow new business of the ten largest general insurance companies in the UK eight have a base or head office in Glasgow including direct line as your AXA and Norwich Union key banking sector companies have also moved some of their services to commercial property in Glasgow resolution JPMorgan Chase Barclays Wealth Tesco personal finance Morgan Stanley Lloyds Banking Group Clydesdale Bank BNP Paribas HSBC Santander and the Royal Bank of Scotland the Ministry of Defence have several departments in clyde port the glasgow stock exchange student loans company Scottish executive Enterprise transport and lifelong learning department BT Group Scottish friendly Scottish qualifications Authority and Scottish Enterprise also have their headquarters in the district royal dutch/shell also have one of their six worldwide shared business centres located in the IFS d hilton have a corporate office based in the area topic Westend Glasgow's Westend as a bohemian district of cafes tea rooms bars boutiques upmarket hotels clubs and restaurants in the hinterland of kelvingrove park the University of Glasgow Glasgow Botanic Gardens and the Scottish exhibition and conference centre focused especially on the area's main thoroughfares of Argyle Street finished in Great Western Road and Byers Road the area is popular with tourists and students and contains many hotels the West End includes residential areas of Hill head downhill kelvingrove Kelvin side inland broom Hill Scots town Jordan Hill Kelvin Dale and an Iceland and to an increasing extent Partick the name is also increasingly being used to refer to any area to the west of Charing Cross the West End is bisected by the river Kelvin which flows from the camp sea fells in the north and confluences with the river clyde at your kalki the spire of Sir George Gilbert Scott's Glasgow University main building the second largest Gothic Revival building in Great Britain is a major landmark and can be seen from miles around sitting atop Gilmour Hill the university itself is the fourth oldest in the english-speaking world much of the city's student population is based in the West End adding to its cultural vibrancy the area is also home to the kelvingrove art gallery and museum Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery Calvin Hall museums and research facilities stores and community sport adjacent to the Kelvin Hall was the Museum of transport which reopened in 2010 after moving to a new location on a former Docklands site at Glasgow harbour where the River Kelvin flows into the Clyde the new building is built to a design by zaha hadid the West End festival one of Glasgow's largest festivals is held annually in June Glasgow is the home of the SECC Great Britain's largest exhibition and Conference Centre on the 30th of September 2013 a major expansion of the SECC facilities at the former Queen's dock by Foster and partners officially opened the 13,000 seat hydro arena topic east and the East End extends from glasgow cross in the city centre to the boundary with North and South Lanarkshire it is home to the Glasgow barrel and market popularly known as the Burris barrel and Ballroom Glasgow green in Celtic Park home of Celtic FC many of the original sandstone tenements remain in this district the East End was once a major industrial centre home to Sir William Arrol and Co James Templeton and Coe and William beard Moore and company a notable local employer continues to be the well park brewery home of tenants lager the Glasgow necropolis Garden Cemetery was created by the merchants house on a hill above the Cathedral in 1831 roots curved through the landscape uphill to the 62 meter 203 feet high statue of John Knox at the summit there are too late 18th century tenements in Gallowgate dating from 1771 and 1780 both have been well restored the construction of Charlotte Street was financed by David Dale whose former scale can be gauged by the one remaining house now run by the National Trust for Scotland further along Charlotte Street there stands a modern Gillespie Kidd and Korea building of some note once a school it has been converted into offices surrounding these buildings are a series of innovative housing developments conceived as homes for the future part of a project during the city's year as UK city of architecture and design in 1999 east of Glasgow cross has st. Andrews in the square the oldest post-reformation Church in Scotland built in 1739 to 1757 and displaying a Presbyterian grandeur befitting the Church of the city's wealthy tobacco merchants also close by as the more modest Episcopalian Street Andrews by the green the oldest Episcopal Church in Scotland the Episcopalian Saint Andrews was also known as the whistling Kirk due to it being the first church after the Reformation to own an organ overlooking Glasgow green as the facade of Templeton on the green featuring vibrant polychromatic brickwork intended to evoke the Doge's Palace in Venice the extensive toll cross park was originally developed from the estate of James Dunlop the owner of a local Steel Works his large baronial mansion was built in 1848 by David Bryce which later housed the city's Children's Museum until the 1980s today the mansion is a sheltered housing complex the new Scottish National Indoor Sports Arena a modern replacement for the Kelvin Hall is in demonic the area was the site of the athletes village for the 2014 Commonwealth Games located adjacent to the new indoor sports arena the East End healthy living center EEA Chelsea was established in mid 200 5 at Crown Point Road with lottery funding and city grants to serve community needs in the area now called the Glasgow Club Crown Point Sports Complex the center provides service such as sports facilities health advice stress management leisure and vocational classes to the north of the East End lie the two large kilometers of Provan Gas Works which stand overlooking Alexandra Park in a major interchange between the m8 and m80 motorways topic Southside Glasgow Southside sprawls out south of the Clyde the urban area includes some of Greater Glasgow SMO staff Lewin suburbs such as Newton mearns white crags Clarkston gift NIC and Portman hall all of which are outside the city boundaries in East Renfrewshire Newlands and dum breck are examples of high value residential districts within the city boundaries there are many areas containing a high concentration of sandstone tenements examples being battlefield Govan hill mount Florida and shellings the large suburb of Pollock Shields comprises both a quiet western part with undulating tree-lined boulevards lined with expensive villas and a busier eastern part with a high-density grid of tenements and small shops the Southside also includes some post-war housing estates of various sizes such as Torrey Glen Pollock Castle milk and Arden the towns of kamba slang and Rutherglen were included in the city of Glasgow district from 1975 to 1996 but are now in the South Lanarkshire Council area although predominantly residential the area does have several notable public buildings including charles rennie mackintosh is Scotland Street School Museum and house for an art lover the Burrell collection in Pollock Country Park alexander Greek Thomson's home would house Villa the national football stadium Hampton Park in mount Florida home of Queens Park FC an Ibrox Stadium home of Rangers FC the former Docklands site at Pacific key on the south bank of the River Clyde opposite the SECC is the site of the Glasgow Science Centre in the headquarters of BBC Scotland and STV group owner of STV in a new purpose-built digital media campus in addition several new bridges spanning the river Clyde have been built including the clyde arc known by locals as the squinty bridge at pacific key and others at trade stone and springfield key the Southside also includes many public parks including Lynn Park Queens Park Bella Houston park and Rokan Glen Park and several golf clubs including the championship course at hag's Castle the Southside is also home to Pollock Country Park which was awarded the accolade of Europe's best Park 2008 Pollock Park is Glasgow's largest park in the only country park within the city boundaries Govan is a district and former borough in the southwestern part of the city it is situated on the south bank of the river clyde opposite partic it was an administrative Lee Independent Police borough from 1864 until it was incorporated into the expanding city of Glasgow in 1912 Govan has a legacy as an engineering and shipbuilding centre of international repute and is home to one of two BAE Systems surface ships shipyards on the River Clyde and the precision engineering firm Bailey's optronics it is also home to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital one of the largest hospitals in the country and the maintenance Depot for the Glasgow subway system the wider Govan area includes the districts of Ibrox canning park and Cessnock North Glasgow North Glasgow extends out from the north of the city center towards the affluent suburbs of Bearsden mill Gavi and Bishop Briggs in East Dunbartonshire and Clydebank in West Dunbartonshire the area also contains some of the city's poorest residential areas pasal Park is one such district where levels of unemployment and drug abuse continue to be above the national average much of the housing in areas such as possible Tyndall have fallen into a state of disrepair in recent years this has led to large-scale redevelopment of much of the poorer housing stock in North Glasgow and the wider regeneration of many areas such as Rochelle which have been transformed many rundown tenements have now been refurbished or replaced by modern housing estates much of the housing stock in North Glasgow has rented social housing with a high proportion of high-rise tower blocks managed by the North Glasgow Housing Association Trading as in Holmes and Glasgow Housing Association Mary Hill consists of well-maintained traditional sandstone tenements although historically a working-class area its borders with the up Market West End of the city mean that it is relatively wealthy compared to the rest of the north of the city containing affluent areas such as Mary Hill Park in north Kelvin side Mary Hill is also the location of fir Hill stadium home of Partick Thistle FC since 1909 the junior team Mary Hill FC are also located in this part of North Glasgow the fourth and Clyde canal passes through this part of the city and at one stage formed a vital part of the local economy it was for many years polluted and largely unused after the decline of heavy industry but recent efforts to regenerate and reopen the canal to navigation have seen it rejuvenated including art campuses at Port Dundas sight hull was home to Scotland's largest asylum seeker community but the area is now regenerated as part of the Youth Olympic Games bid a huge part of the economic life of Glasgow was once located in Spring burn where the Saracen foundry engineering works of firms like Charles Tennant and locomotive workshops employed many glass regions indeed Glasgow dominated this type of manufacturing with 25 percent of all the world's locomotives being built in the area at one stage it was home to the headquarters of the North British locomotive company today part of the st. Raleigh's railway works continues in use as a railway maintenance facility all that is left of the industry in spring Byrne topic culture the city has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities from curling to opera and ballet and from football to art appreciation it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to transport religion and modern art many of the city's cultural sights were celebrated in 1990 when Glasgow was designated European city of Culture the city's principal municipal library the Mitchell library has grown into one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe currently housing some 1.3 million books an extensive collection of newspapers and thousands of photographs and maps of academic libraries Glasgow University Library started in the 15th century and is one of the oldest and largest libraries in Europe with unique and distinctive collections of international status most of Scotland's national arts organizations are based in Glasgow including Scottish opera Scottish Ballet National Theatre of Scotland Royal Scottish National Orchestra BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Scottish Youth Theatre Glasgow has its own poet laureate a post created in 1999 for Edwin Morgan and occupied by Liz Lochhead from 2005 until 2011 when she stood down to take up the position of Scots Makar Jim Carruth was appointed to the position of poet laureate for Glasgow in 2014 as part of the 2014 Commonwealth Games legacy in 2013 Peter declared Glasgow to be the most vegan-friendly city in the UK soppec recreation Glasgow is home to a variety of theatres including the King's Theatre the Theatre Royal and the citizens theatre and is home to many museums and art galleries the largest and most famous being the kelvingrove art gallery and museum the Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery the gallery of modern art Goma and the Burrell collection most of the museums and galleries in Glasgow are publicly owned and free to enter the city has hosted many exhibitions over the years including being the UK city of architecture 1999 European Capital of Culture 1990 national city of sport 1995 to 1999 and european capital of sport 2003 Glasgow has also hosted the National mod no less than 12 times since 1895 in addition unlike the older and larger Edinburgh Festival where all Edinburgh main festivals occur in the last three weeks of August Glasgow's festivals fill the calendar festivals include the Glasgow International Comedy Festival Glasgow International Festival of visual art Glasgow International Jazz Festival Celtic connections Glasgow Fair Glasgow Film Festival West End Festival Merchant City Festival Glasgow and the world pipe band championships topic music scene the city is home to numerous orchestras ensembles and bands including those of Scottish opera Scottish Ballet Royal Scottish National Orchestra BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and related to the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland the National Youth Orchestra of Scotland and the universities and colleges choirs of all type are well supported Glasgow has many live music venues pubs and clubs some of the city's more well-known venues include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall the Hydra the SECC Glasgow cathouse the art school King Tut's wah-wah hut where Oasis were spotted and signed by Glaswegian record mogul Alan McGee the Queen Margaret Union who have Kurt Cobain's footprint locked in a safe the barrel and a ballroom converted into a live music venue as well as the garage which is the largest nightclub in Scotland more recent mid-sized venues include ABC in the o2 Academy which play host to a similar range of acts there are also a large number of smaller venues and bars which hosts many local and touring musicians including stereo 13th note and nice and sleazy most recent recipient of the SL TN music pub of the Year award was bar block awarded in November 2011 in 2010 Glasgow was named the UK's fourth most musical city by PRS for music Glasgow is also the most mentioned city in the UK in song titles outside London according to a chart produced by PRS for music with 119 ahead of closest rivals Edinburgh who received 95 mentions in recent years the success of bands such as the Blue Nile Gunn Simple Minds dilemma tree Texas pips way love and money Idlewild Deacon blue orange juice Lloyd Cole and the commotions Teenage Fanclub Belle and Sebastian camera obscura Franz Ferdinand Mogwai Travis and primal scream has significantly boosted the profile of the Glasgow music scene prompting Time magazine to liken Glasgow to Detroit during its 1960s Motown heyday more recent successes include The Fratellis churches rusty glass Vegas and twin Atlantic the city of Glasgow was appointed a UNESCO city of music on the 20th of August 2008 as part of the creative cities Network glass goes contemporary dance music scene has been spearheaded by slam and their record label selma quality recordings with their pressure club nights attracting DJs and clubbers from around the world which was previously held at the arches but following that venues closure due to claims of unsafe level of drug use has moved to sub club the mobile awards were held at the SECC on the 30th of September 2009 making Glasgow the first out of London City to host the event since its launch in 1995 on the 9th of November 2014 Glasgow hosted the 2014 MTV Europe Music Awards at the SSE hydro it was the second time Scotland hosted the show since 2003 in Edinburgh and overall the fifth time that the United Kingdom has hosted the show since 2011 in Belfast Northern Ireland the event was hosted by Nicki Minaj and featured performances from Ariana Grande Enrique Iglesias ed Sheeran u2 and slash topic media there have been hundreds of films made about Glasgow or in Glasgow both BBC Scotland and STV have their headquarters in Glasgow television programmes filmed in Glasgow include Rab C Nesbitt Taggart high times River City city lights chin the fat still game in lovesick most recently the long-running series question time in the early evening quiz programme eggheads moved its production base to the city most national lottery game shows are also filmed in Glasgow children's game show copycats is filmed there and the Irish UK programme mrs. Brown's boys is filmed at BBC Scotland the Scottish press publishes various newspapers in the city such as the evening Times The Herald the Sunday Herald The Sunday Mail and the Daily Record Scottish editions of Trinity Mirror and news international titles are printed in the city STV group as a Glasgow based media conglomerate with interests in television and publishing advertising STV group owns and operates both Scottish ITV franchises central Scotland and Grampian both branded STV Glasgow also had its own television channel STV Glasgow which launched in June 2014 which also shows some of Glasgow zone programmes filmed at the STV headquarters in Glasgow shows included the Riverside show Scottish kitchen City Safari football show and live at five STV glasgow merged with STV edinburgh to form STV – in April 2017 which eventually closed in June 2018 various radio stations are also located in glasgow bauer radio owns the principal commercial radio stations in glasgow clyde 1 and clyde – which can reach over 2.3 million listeners in 2004 STV Group plc then known as SMG PLC sold its twenty seven point eight percent stake in Scottish radio Holdings to the broadcasting group EMAP for ninety point five million pounds other stations broadcasting from Glasgow include 100 5.2 smooth radio real radio and 96.3 rock radio which are all owned by GMG radio global radio Central Scotland radio station Capital FM Scotland also broadcast from studios in Glasgow the city has a strong community radio sector including Celtic music radio subsidy radio radio magnetic sunny Govan radio awaz FM and insight radio topic religion Glasgow is a city of significant religious diversity the Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church are the two largest Christian denominations in the city there are 147 congregations in the Church of Scotland's presbytery of Glasgow of which 104 are within the city boundaries the other 43 being in adjacent areas within the city boundaries there are 65 parishes of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Glasgow and 4 parishes of the Diocese of mother well the city has four christian cathedrals Glasgow Cathedral of the Church of Scotland st. Andrew's Cathedral of the Roman Catholic Church Saint Mary's Cathedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church and st. Luke's Cathedral of the Greek Orthodox Church the Baptist Church and Salvation Army are well represented 32% of the population followed the Protestant Church of Scotland whilst 29% following the Roman Catholic Church according to the 2001 census Christians overall formed 65% much of the city's Catholic population are those of Irish ancestry the divisions between the two denominations and their respective communities play a major part in sectarianism in Glasgow in a similar nature to that of Northern Ireland although not segregated territorially as in Belfast biblical Unitarians are represented by three christadelphians ecclesia s– referred to geographically as south central and kelvin the sikh community is served by four gurdwaras two are situated in the West End central Gurdwara Singh Sabha in finis 10 and guru nanak Sikh temple in Kelvin bridge and two in the south side area of pollock shields guru granth sahib gurdwara and Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Gurdwara in 2013 Scotland's first purpose-built Gurdwara opened in a massive opening ceremony built at a cost of 3.8 million pounds it can hold 1,500 worshippers central Gurudwara is currently constructing a new building in the city there are almost 10,000 Sikhs in Scotland and the majority live in glasgow glasgow central mosque in the Gorbals district as the largest mosque in Scotland and along with 12 other mosques in the city caters for the city's muslim population estimated to number 33,000 glass go also has a Hindu Mandir Glasgow has seven synagogues with the seventh largest Jewish population in the United Kingdom after London Manchester Leeds Gateshead Brighton and Bournemouth but once had a Jewish population second only to London estimated at 20,000 in the Gorbals alone in 1993 the Saint Mungo Museum of religious life and art opened in Glasgow it is believed to be the only public museum to examine all the world's major religious faiths topic language Glaswegian otherwise known as the Glasgow patter is a local variety of Scots Glaswegian as a dialect more than an alternative pronunciation words also change their meaning depending on context eg away can mean leaving as in Amma way an instruction to stop being a nuisance is in a way whyyyy or drunk or demented as in he's away Wyatt ginger is a term for any carbonated soft drink historically referring to ginger beer a bottle Oh ginger IPA ball tinder then there are words whose meaning has no obvious relationship to that in standard English coupon means faced via to punch a ticket coupon ahead but is known in many parts of the British Isles as a Glasgow kiss although this term is rarely used by glass regions who say Malky eg all Malky ye or stick the hyde nut on ye a speaker of Glaswegian might refer to those originating from the Scottish Highlands and the Western Isles as toygers while they would reciprocate by referring to glass regions as Keeley's more recently the word Ouija has become more widely used to describe glass regions the long-running TV drama Taggart and the comedies empty chewing the fat Rab C Nesbitt still game lemmy's show in dear green place to pick the Glaswegian patois while kevin bridges Frankie Boyle Craig Ferguson and Billy Connolly have made Glaswegian humor known to the rest of the world Glasgow is Scotland's main locus of Gaelic language use outside the Highlands and Islands in 2011 5000 878 residents of the city over age 3 spoke Gaelic amounting to 1.0 percent of the population of Scotland's 25 largest cities only Inverness the unofficial capital of the highlands has a larger percentage of Gaelic speakers in the Greater Glasgow area there were 8000 899 Gaelic speakers or 0.8 percent of the population both the Gaelic language television station BBC Alba and the Gaelic language radio station BBC Radio nan gable have studios in Glasgow there are only locations outside the Highlands and Islands topic architecture very little of medieval Glasgow remains the two main landmarks from this period being the 15th century province lordship and 13th century st. Mungo's Cathedral although the original medieval Street plan along with many of the street names on the eastern side of the city centre has largely survived intact the vast majority of the city has seen today dates from the 19th century as a result Glasgow has an impressive heritage of Victorian architecture the Glasgow City Chambers the main building of the University of Glasgow designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott and the kelvingrove art gallery and museum designed by Sir John W Simpson are notable examples the city is notable for architecture designed by the Glasgow school the most notable exponent of that style being Charles Rennie Mackintosh Mackintosh was an architect and designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and the main exponent of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom designing numerous noted Glasgow buildings such as the Glasgow School of Art willow tea rooms in the Scotland Street School Museum a hidden gem of Glasgow also designed by Mackintosh is the Queen's Cross Church the only Church by the renowned artist to be built another architect who has had an enduring impact on the city's appearance as Alexander Thompson with notable examples including the Homewood house Villa and likewise Sir John James Burnett awarded the RI bees royal gold medal for his lifetime service to architecture the buildings reflect the wealth and self-confidence of the residents of the second city of the Empire Glasgow generated immense wealth from trade in the industries that developed from the Industrial Revolution the shipyards marine engineering steelmaking and heavy industry all contributed to the growth of the city many of the city's most impressive buildings were built with red or blonde sandstone but during the industrial era those colors disappeared under a pervasive black layer of soot and pollutants from the furnaces until the Clean Air Act was introduced in 1956 in recent years many of these buildings have been cleaned and restored to their original appearance there are over 1,800 listed buildings in the city of architectural and historical importance and 23 conservation areas extending over at 71 hectares such areas include the central area Denis Town the West End Pollock Shields the first major plant garden suburb in Britain Newlands and harmonic village modern buildings in Glasgow include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall and along the banks of the Clyde are the Glasgow Science Centre the hydro in the Scottish exhibition and conference centre whose Clyde auditorium was designed by Sir Norman Foster and is colloquially known as the armadillo in 2006 zaha hadid won a competition to design the new Museum of transport Padilla's Newseum opened on the waterfront in 2011 and has been renamed the Riverside Museum to reflect the change in location and to celebrate Glasgow's rich industrial heritage stemming from the Clyde Glasgow's impressive historical and modern architectural traditions were celebrated in 1999 when the city was designated UK city of architecture and design winning the accolade over Liverpool in Edinburgh topic economy Glasgow has the largest economy in Scotland and is at the hub of the metropolitan area of west central Scotland Glasgow also has the third highest GDP per capita of any city in the UK after London and Edinburgh the city itself sustains more than four hundred ten thousand jobs in over 12,000 companies over 150 3,000 jobs were created in the city between 2000 and 2005 a growth rate of 32% Glasgow's annual economic growth rate of 4.4% is now second only to that of London in 2005 over 17,000 new jobs were created in 2006 soft private sector investment in the city reaching 4.2 billion pounds an increase of 22% in a single year 55% of the residents in the Greater Glasgow area commute to the city every day once dominant export orientated manufacturing industries such as shipbuilding and other heavy engineering have been gradually replaced in importance by more diversified forms of economic activity although major manufacturing firms continue to be headquartered in the city such as a Greco Weir group Clyde blowers Howden Lyn products firebrand games William Grant & Sons Wight and Mackay the Eddington group Britta puller engines and Albion motors Glasgow was once one of the most significant cities in the UK for manufacturing which generated a great deal of the city's wealth the most prominent industry being shipbuilding based on the River Clyde although Glasgow owed much of its economic growth to the shipbuilding industry which still continues today in the form of BAE Systems maritime naval ships two shipyards the city has its roots in the tobacco trade and is noted to have risen from its medieval slumber from trade in tobacco pioneered by figures such as John glass fort the city was also noted for its locomotive construction industry led by firms such as the North British locomotive company which grew during the 19th century before entering a decline in the 1960s whilst manufacturing has declined Glasgow economy has seen significant relative growth of tertiary sector industries such as financial and business services communications Biosciences creative industries health care higher education retail and tourism Glasgow is now the second most popular foreign tourist destination in Scotland within the UK and offers Scotland's largest retail center between 1998 and 2001 the city's financial services sector grew at a rate of 30 percent making considerable gains on Edinburgh which has historically been the centre of the Scottish financial sector Glasgow is now one of Europe's 16 largest financial centres with a growing number of blue-chip financial sector companies establishing significant operations or headquarters in the city the 1990s and first decade of the 21st century saw substantial growth in the number of call centres based in Glasgow in 2007 roughly 20,000 people a third of all call center employees in Scotland were employed by Glasgow call centres this growth and its high use of recruitment agencies to hire graduates as temporary workers has led to accusations of exploitative practices such as long hours poor pay and lack of job security by the TU C and other Union bodies in recent years some call centres have taken steps to rectify this criticism the city's main manufacturing industries include companies involved in shipbuilding engineering can struction brewing and distilling printing and publishing chemicals and textiles as well as newer growth sectors such as optoelectronics software development and biotechnology Glasgow forms the western part of the silicon Glen high-tech sector of Scotland topic transport topic public transport Glasgow has a large urban transport system mostly managed by the Strathclyde partnership for transport SPT the city has many bus services since bus deregulation almost all are provided by private operators though SPT part funds some services the principal bus operators within the city are first Glasgow McGill's bus services stagecoach West Scotland and Glasgow city bus the main bus terminal in the city as buchanan bus station Glasgow has the most extensive urban rail network in the UK outside London with rail services travelling to a large part of the west of Scotland most lines were electrified under British Rail all trains running within Scotland including the local Glasgow trains are operated by Abellio scott reil who own the franchise is determined by the Scottish Government Central Station and Queen Street Station are the two main railway terminals glasgow central is the terminus of the 640 1.6 kilometers 398 point seven miles long west coast main line from London Euston all services to and from England used this station glasgow central is also the terminus for suburban services on the south side of glasgow Ayrshire and invert clyde as well as being served by the cross city link from downer to Motherwell most other services within scotland the main line to edinburgh plus services to Aberdeen Dundee Inverness and the western highlands operate from Queen Street Station the city's suburban network is currently divided by the river Clyde and the cross rail Glasgow initiative has been proposed to link them it is currently awaiting funding from the Scottish Government the city is linked to Edinburgh by four direct railway links in addition to the suburban rail network SPT operates the Glasgow subway the subway is the United Kingdom's only completely underground metro system and is generally recognized as the world's third underground railway after the London Underground and the Budapest Metro both rail and subway stations have a number of Park and Ride facilities as part of the wider regeneration along the banks of the River Clyde a bus rapid transit system called Clyde fast link is operational between glasgow city centre to the Queen Elizabeth versity hospital topic shipping global ship management is carried out by maritime and logistics firms in Glasgow employing over 100,000 seafaring colleagues in client companies this reflects maritime skills over many decades and the training and education of deck officers and marine engineers from around the world at the city of Glasgow College monocle campus from which graduate around one-third of all such graduates in the United Kingdom the main operational dock with in Glasgow operated by Clyde port as the king george v dock near bray head since the advent of containerization most other facilities such as hunterson terminal are located in the deep waters of the Firth of Clyde which together handles some 7.5 million tons of cargo each year longer distant commercial sea shipping from Glasgow occurs regularly to many European destinations including Mediterranean and Baltic ports via passage through the sea of the Hebrides leisure and tourists sailing is important at marinas and towns of the Clyde including the PS Waverly the world's last operational seagoing paddle steamer topic roads the main m8 motorway passes around the city centre and connects with the m77 m74 motorway m73 an m-80 motorways the a82 connects the city to Argyll in the western highlands the m74 runs directly south towards Carlisle other strategic roads in the city include the East End regeneration route which provides easier access to areas of the East End linking the m8 to the extended m74 topic airport the city has three international airports within 45 minutes travel of the city center as well as a centrally located seaplane terminal two are dedicated to Glasgow while the third is Edinburgh International which as it is situated on the west side of Edinburgh is relatively close to Glasgow these airports are Glasgow Airport GLA eight miles ten kilometres west of the city centre in Renfrew sir Glasgow Prestwick Airport picked 30 miles 50 kilometres southwest in Ayrshire Edinburgh Airport eddie 34 miles 50 kilometres east in Edinburgh and Glasgow seaplane terminal by the Glasgow Science Centre on the River Clyde there are also several smaller domestic and private airports around the city there is a heliport Glasgow City heliport located at stop cross key on the banks of the Clyde all of the international airports are easily accessible by public transport with GLA and Eddy directly linked by a bus routes from the main bus station and a direct rail connection to pick from Glasgow Central Station a plan to provide a direct rail link to Glasgow International was dropped with the cancelling of the Glasgow Airport rail link in 2009 though the Scottish Government is actively as of 2014 considering alternative rail based surface access possibilities topic housing Glasgow is known for its tenements the red and blonde sandstone buildings are some of the most recognizable features of the city these were the most popular form of housing in 19th and 20th century Glasgow and remained the most common form of dwelling in Glasgow today tenements are commonly bought by a wide range of social types and are favoured for their large rooms high ceilings and original period features the hinterland area of Glasgow became the first tenement conservation area in the UK and includes some tenement houses with as many as six bedrooms like many cities in the UK Glasgow witnessed the construction of high-rise housing and tower blocks in the 1960s along with large overspill estates on the periphery of the city in areas like Pollock Mitchell Castle milk Easter House Milton and drum Chapel these were built to replace the decaying inner-city tenement buildings originally built for workers who migrated from the surrounding countryside the Highlands and the rest of the United Kingdom particularly Ireland to feed the local demand for labour the massive demand at that time outstripped the pace of new building and many originally find tenements often became overcrowded and unsanitary many des generated into infamous slums such as the Gorbals efforts to improve this housing situation most successfully with the city Improvement Trust in the late 19th century cleared the slums of the old town areas such as the Tron Gate High Street in Glasgow cross subsequent urban renewal initiatives such as those motivated by the Bruce Report entailed the comprehensive demolition of slum tenement areas the development of new towns on the periphery of the city and the construction of tower blocks the policy of tenement demolition is now considered to have been short-sighted wasteful and largely unsuccessful many of Glasgow's worst tenements were refurbished into desirable accommodation in the 1970s and 1980s and the policy of demolition is considered to have destroyed many fine examples of a universally admired architectural style the Glasgow Housing Association took ownership of the housing stock from the City Council on the 7th of March 2003 and has begun a 96 million pounds clearance and demolition program to clear and demolish many of the high-rise flats topic healthcare medical care is mainly provided by NHS Scotland and is directly administered by NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde major hospitals including those with accident and emergency provision art the Western infirmary GART naval general hospital Glasgow Royal Infirmary and the dental hospital in the city centre STOVL hospital in the north and the Victoria infirmary and Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in the Southside GART naval Royal Hospital and the Priory are the two major psychiatric hospitals based in Glasgow the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital q euh campus as a 1677 bed acute hospital located in Govan in the southwest of Glasgow the hospital is built on the site of the former southern general hospital and opened at the end of April 2015 the hospital comprises a newly built 1109 bed adult hospital a 256 bed Children's Hospital in two major A&E departments one for adults and one for children in addition to buildings retained from the former hospital the qtu h is the regional major trauma center for the west of scotland and is also the largest hospital campus in europe there is also an emergency telephone service provided by NHS 24 and 24 hour access to general practitioners through out of hours centres paramedic services are provided by the Scottish Ambulance Service and supported by voluntary bodies like the st. Andrews ambulance Association a strong teaching tradition is maintained between the city's main hospitals in the University of Glasgow Medical School all pharmacies provide a wide range of services including minor ailment advice emergency hormonal contraception public health advice some provide oxygen and needle exchange there are private clinics and hospitals at the Nuffield in the West End in Ross Hall in the south side of the city topic education Glasgow is a major center of higher and academic research with the following universities and colleges within 10 miles 16 kilometres of the city centre University of Glasgow University of Strathclyde Glasgow Caledonian University University of the West of Scotland the Glasgow School of Art Royal Conservatoire of Scotland city of Glasgow College Glasgow Clyde College Glasgow Calvin College West College Scotland in 2011 Glasgow had 53,000 470 full-time students aged 18 to 74 resident in the city during term time more than any other city in Scotland and the fifth largest in the United Kingdom outside London the majority of those who live away from home reside in shaolin's denis town in the West End of the city the city council operates 29 secondary schools 149 primary schools and 3 specialist schools the dance school of Scotland Glasgow School of sport and the Glasgow Gaelic school scale get lead Glatt you the only Secondary School in Scotland to teach exclusively in Gaelic outdoor education facilities are provided by the City Council at the Blair Vantage center near Helensburgh Jordan Hill School is operated directly by the Scottish Government Glasgow also has a number of independent schools including Hutchison's Grammar School founded in 1639 and one of the oldest school institutions in Britain and others such as Craig home school Fern Hill School Glasgow Academy Kelvin side Academy st. Aloysius College and the high school of Glasgow which was founded in 1124 and is the oldest school in Scotland topic sport topic football the world's first international football match was held in 1872 at the west of Scotland cricket clubs Hamilton Crescent ground in the party Karia of the city the match between Scotland and England finished zero to zero Glasgow was the first city since joined by Liverpool in 1985 Madrid in 1986 2014 2016 and 2018 and Milan in 1994 to have had two football teams in European finals in the same season in 1967 celtic competed in the European Cup final with rivals Rangers competing in the Cup Winners Cup final Rangers were the first football club from the United Kingdom to reach a European final doing so in 1961 they have also won more domestic top-tier league titles than any other football club in the world currently 54 celtic were the first non Latin Club to win the European Cup under the management of Jock Stein in 1967 before Manchester United the following year celtic also went on to reach another European Cup final in 1970 losing to Feyenoord and also the final of the UEFA Cup in 2003 where they lost an enthralling match which finished 3-2 to to Portuguese club Porto Rangers also reached the final of the same competition in 2008 where they lost to Zenit Saint Petersburg of Russia Kempton Park which is Scotland's national football stadium holds the European record for attendance at a football match 149,000 547 saw Scotland beat England 3 to 1 in 1937 in the days before leading British stadia became all-seated Hampton Park has hosted the final of the UEFA Champions League on 3 occasions most recently in 2002 and hosted the UEFA Cup final in 2007 Celtic Park 60,000 355 seats is located in the East End of Glasgow in Ibrox Stadium 50,000 947 seats on the south side Glasgow has three professional football clubs Celtic Rangers and Partick Thistle a fourth Queen's Park operate on an amateur basis in the SPFL League – and are one of the world's oldest active clubs founded 1867 prior to this Glasgow had two other professional teams Clyde since moved to come Bernal and third laner liquidated in 1967 plus four others active in the league in the 19th century thistle Cal Aires northern and lint house there are a number of junior clubs within the city as well such as Pollock Mary Hill Ben burb Ashfield Glasgow Pershore FC shuttle stone and Peters Hill as well as numerous amateur teams the history of football in the city as well as the status of the Old Firm attracts many visitors to football matches in the city throughout the season the Scottish Football Association the national governing body and the Scottish Football Museum are based in Glasgow as are the Scottish Professional Football League Scottish Junior Football Association and Scottish amateur Football Association the Glasgow Cup was a once-popular tournament which was competed for by Rangers Celtic Clyde Partick Thistle and Queens Park the competition is now played for by the youth sides of the five teams Glasgow is also home to six women's football teams currently Glasgow City are the champions of the Scottish Women's Premier League other local teams include Glasgow girls and the women's sections of the men's clubs Celtic and Rangers play in the top division topic rugby union Glasgow has a professional rugby union club the Glasgow Warriors which plays in the European rugby Champions Cup and pro 14 alongside teams from Scotland Ireland Wales in Italy the Warriors current home is Scots Town Stadium and has been since 2012 previously they played at fir Hill Stadium they have won the Melrose sevens in both 2014 and 2015 and were also crowned champions of the pro12 at the end of the 2014-15 season after beating Irish side Munster in Belfast in the Scottish league Glasgow Hawks RFC was formed in 1997 by the merger of two of Glasgow's oldest clubs Glasgow Academical and Glasgow hi Calvin side ghk despite the merger the second division teams of Glasgow Academical Xin Glasgow hi Calvin side re-entered the Scottish rugby league in 1998 south of Glasgow in East Renfrewshire in the suburb of DIF Nick is based another of Glasgow area's most prominent clubs Glasgow Hutchison's always Ian's RFC GHA GHA was formed in 2002 with the merger of two of Glasgow's leading clubs at the time Glasgow Southern RFC and Hutchison's always seein's RFC kartha Queens Park play at dumb Breck within the city Glasgow was also home to one of the oldest rugby clubs in Scotland west of Scotland FC which was formed in 1865 and was a founding member of the Scottish rugby union the club was originally based in part ticket Hamilton Crescent but is now based outside of the city at burn Brae Milne Gavi in East Dunbartonshire topic rugby league the Easter house Panthers based in the East End of Glasgow are a rugby league team who play in the rugby league Conference Scotland division Scots Town Stadium has also hosted many Rugby League tournaments events topic ice-hockey the city of Glasgow has a number of ice rinks and a temporary one is set up in George Square in the Christmas period from 1966 to 1986 the Glasgow dynamos played at Cross Malouf ice rink since October 2010 a team called the Glasgow clan based in the nearby bray head arena in Renfrew sure has played in the professional elite ice hockey league alongside three other Scottish teams the Fife Flyers Dundee stars and the Edinburgh Capitals this is the first time that a top-level ice hockey team has represented Glasgow topic swimming the Arlington baths Club as the oldest swimming club in the world founded in 1870 the club in Arlington Street in the woodlands area of the city is still thriving today it is believed the club's first baths master William Wilson invented water polo at the club the Arlington inspired other swimming clubs in the Western baths which opened in 1876 is also still in existence in nearby Hill head most of Glasgow's victorian and edwardian municipal pools have been closed or demolished with the City Council investing in large new leisure centres such as Tolle cross Spring burn Gorbals Scots Town and Bella Houston a community group is however hoping to reopen Govan Hill baths on the city's south side topic basketball Glasgow hosts Scotland's only professional basketball team the Glasgow Rox who compete in the British basketball league previously based in Renfrew sure's Bray head arena and the 1200 seater Kelvin Hall the team has been based at the Emirates Arena since the 2012-13 season topic other sports major international sporting arenas include the Kelvin Hall and Scots town Sports Centre in 2003 the National Academy for badminton was completed in Scotts town in 2003 Glasgow was also given the title of European capital of sport Glasgow is also host to many cricket clubs including Clydesdale cricket club who have been title winners for the Scottish Cup many times this club also acted as a neutral venue for a one-day international match between India and Pakistan in 2007 but due to bad weather it was called off smaller sporting facilities include an abundance of outdoor playing fields as well as golf clubs such as hags Castle and artificial ski slopes between 1998 and 2004 the Scottish claymores American football team played some or all of their home games each season at Hampden Park and the venue also hosted world Bowl 11 Glasgow green and the Gorbals are home to a number of rowing clubs some with open membership the rest belonging to universities or schools historically rowing races on the River Clyde here attracted huge crowds of spectators to watch regattas in the late 19th century and early 20th century before football caught the public imagination two of Glasgow's rowing clubs separately claimed that it was their members who were among the founders of Rangers Football Club motorcycle speedway racing was first introduced to Glasgow in 1928 and has currently staged at Saracen Park in the north of the city the home club Glasgow Tigers compete in the British Premier League the second tier of motorcycle speedway in Britain Glasgow is also one of five places in Scotland that hosts the final of the Scottish Cup of shindy better known as the Camelot Cup this is usually held at olden Iceland once home to numerous shindy clubs there is now only one senior club in Glasgow Glasgow mid Argyll as well as two University sides from University of Strathclyde and University of Glasgow Glasgow bid to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics but lost to Buenos Aires in the fourth of July 2013 vote Glasgow will host the 2018 European sports championships along with Berlin pre-existing hosts of the 2018 European Athletics Championships topic 2014 Commonwealth Games on the 9th of November 2007 Glasgow was selected to be the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games the games were held at a number of existing and newly constructed sporting venues across the city including a refurbished Hampton Park Kelvin Grove Park Kelvin Hall and the SSE hydro at the SECC the opening ceremony was held at Celtic Park 2014 was the third time the games have been held in Scotland topic major incidents and tragedies the 5th of April 1902 to 1905 ryx disaster 25 spectators died and 500 were injured when a new wooden stand at the stadium collapsed 1960s 1970s several firefighters perished at three separate blazes the Cheapside Street whiskey bonfire 1969 team killed the James Watt Street fire 1968 22 killed the Cole Burnie Street fire 1972 7 killed the 2nd of January 1971 to 1971 Ibrox disaster 66 people were killed in a crush as supporters attempted to vacate the stadium the 11th of May 2004 Stockland plastics factory explosion the ICL plastics factory commonly referred to as stock line plastics factory in the Woodside district of Glasgow in western Scotland exploded nine people were killed including two company directors and 33 injured 15 seriously the four-story building was largely destroyed the 30th of June 2007 Glasgow Airport terrorists attacked on Saturday the 30th of June 2007 at 1511 BST a green Jeep Cherokee loaded with propane canisters was driven into the glass doors of the Glasgow International Airport terminal and set ablaze it was the first terrorist attacked in Scotland since the Lockerbie bombing in 1988 security bollards outside prevented the car from entering the terminal the car's occupants were severely burnt in the ensuing fire and five members of the public suffered minor injuries some from assisting police constables in arresting the occupants one occupant later died of his injuries in hospital and the second was convicted of attempted murder through terrorism and interfering with international aerospace and was sentenced to 32 years in custody a further eight were arrested in connection with the incident all remanded in custody the 29th of November 2013 to 2013 Glasgow helicopter crash Friday the 29th of November 2013 a eurocopter ec135 t2 plus operated by bond air services for police Scotland fell from the sky and crashed on top of the clue the vaults a pub on the north banks of the River Clyde ten people were killed in the incident all those on the helicopter and seven on the ground and inside the pub the reason why the helicopter crashed is still under investigation the 23rd of May 2014 Glasgow School of Art blazed a fire tore through the historic and world-renowned Glasgow School of Art Mackintosh building that was designed by charles rennie mackintosh around a tenth of the structure and 30% of its contents were destroyed including the prized Mackintosh library there were no deaths but a few were treated for minor smoke inhalation the Scottish Fire and Rescue were praised for their quick response and planned to effectively tackle the fire it was later found after a fire investigation that gases inside a projector had overheated and ignited the 22nd of December 2014 to 2014 Glasgow bin lorry crash at about 1430 Greenwich Mean Time six people were killed and many were seriously injured when a bin lorry careered out of control and collided with pedestrians and a skoda octavia private hire car before it stopped outside the Millennium Hotel it is believed that the lorry driver suffered from heart difficulties but the exact cause is still under investigation the 29th of December 2014 first Ebola virus case in Scotland Pauline Kaif rocky a nurse returning to Glasgow from Kerry Town treatment centre Sierra Leone West Africa where she had been a volunteer caring for patients infected with the Ebola virus was taken into isolation after testing positive for the virus she was not diagnosed before leaving Sierra Leone topic twin towns and sister cities Glasgow is twinned with various cities topic partnerships the city is also in a partnership with a loom topic notable people topic see also Glasgow portal topic references topic citations topic bibliography topic external links you Glasgow encyclopedia britannica 1211 IDI 1911 Glasgow at Curley Glasgow City Council interactive attractions map of central Glasgow the Glasgow story National Library of Scotland Scottish screen archive archived films relating to Glasgow

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