Improving Your Literature Review with NVivo 11 for Windows



today's session is a demonstration of invivo 11 for Windows I'll give a high-level overview of the capabilities of invivo 11 starter Pro + + with a specific focus on using nvivo to do literature reviews it's a challenge to keep track of all of your articles key findings and influential authors when conducting a literature review invivo can will import PDFs and bibliographic information from reference management software efficiently organize and tag literature easily keep track of critical quotes and track ideas across many articles there are three editions of invivo 11 for Windows starter Pro + + bring libraries from EndNote refworks Zotero and Mendeley and 2 in vivo 11 all three editions can help you organize your PDFs and other text documents and in vivo 11 Pro and plus you can manage bibliographic information across articles in a single convenient location vivo pro + plus can handle many data types when working with literature you can import PDFs as well as import libraries including attached PDFs from reference management software namely refworks Mendeley Zotero and EndNote once you have your literature in nvivo you can use invivo to quickly identify key terms across multiple articles this word cloud is live to the data in nvivo so you can easily explore how these terms are being used word trees help you identify prominent words and phrases these are produced using text search queries which are sophisticated find of those words and phrases the framework matrix is a method that facilitates the summary of key themes across articles or authors easily compare multiple themes across a body of literature as well as add your own notes hierarchy charts help you visualize patterns in your coding or attribute values this is a type of hierarchy chart called a tree map and it's visualizing coding for one article my literature review I can easily see which topics were are more prominent and different articles using a hierarchy chart this is another type of hierarchy chart called a sunburst which is visualizing bibliographic trends across my literature here I can see the year published breakdown across my literature library the outer ring represents the number of articles from each year and in vivo this is a dynamic visualization and I can zoom in to see the authors of these articles for example these are all the articles published in 2005 explore diagrams are a dynamic visualization that helps you explore connections between your project items for instance in this exploit diagram I can see all of the articles that have coding for given topic today I'm going to introduce you to some of the tools in nvivo that are useful when conducting a literature review I'll start by showing how to bring in libraries from reference management software today we'll be working with Zotero then I'll cover some tools within invivo specifically the word frequency and textured queries that can help you quickly understand key concepts in your literature nodes which are buckets for qualitative data pull together information from multiple sources of literature this makes it easy to see how an idea or concept has manifested across articles or authors we'll also cover Auto coding by theme which is a feature that's only available in nvivo plus but can quickly read across your articles for prevalent themes and code to note then we'll work with a framework matrix and take a look at some tools to visualize trends in your letter term namely the hierarchy chart and explore diagram next we'll move into invivo all invivo projects follow the same basic process the first step in indian vivo project is to gather data then you create an in vivo project and import those materials from there you can analyze and explore your data through fistic ated coding and query functions and create a beautiful visualization that helps you learn more about your data and communicate your findings to others so now we're going to move out of PowerPoint and into a blank and vivo project if at any point you'd like clarification on which features are available in starter or Pro or Plus please ask that question using the question function and go to webinar today we're going to be working with some literature on environmental education to bring a library into Zotero into nvivo from Zotero or any reference management software you'll first need to export it depending on which reference management software you prefer to use the file format varies so I'm using Zotero so what I'll do is select everything that I want to export and export it as an RIS file put that on my desktop for more information on which file format to use for your preferred reference management software I've attached a handout to GoToWebinar that has a number of helpful links and resources specifically there are links to our online help that have helpful details on this process and what file formats you need to export into for each of the different types of reference management software so I've exported my library and now I need to bring it into invivo so today I'm working with some literature on environmental education and when I import this literature from Zotero and people gives me some options I can choose to name my sources by title or author in year I often work with APA so I prefer to name by author and year and then it tells me where it's going to put every thing so it'll take a few moments when I once I click import to bring everything I can uncover what it means by putting internals and internals and externals and externals so if there is a PDF attached to the citation in Zotero then that PDF comes in and into nvivo as an internal internals our sources that you can import into an vevo so all the different file types that are available to import into nvivo are come in as an internal if the citation didn't have anything attached to it so perhaps you didn't have access to that article then in people will create a proxy document called an external so here let's start in internals here are all of the PDFs for which I had access in invivo I'm sorry for which I had access in Zotero now in nvivo and then when I open this up you can see this looks just like it would look if I open it in any sort of PDF Reader and if the text is recognized and it most recently created PDFs the text is recognized meaning you can highlight it just like I've done or highlighted like you might in a Word document and then you can code this as a text document and in vivo so if the reference didn't have a PDF attached then in vivo creates a proxy document called an external so for example this 2005 article by ellen Appleby i don't have access to it so it's created a blank external and I can choose to type in here just like any Word document so for instance if I gain access to it but it's in a book and I don't copy it or if it is a full hardcover book for instance and you can't import a hardcover book unless you want to copy the whole thing bringing into nvivo you can treat this just like a pen and paper or Word document where you can type up quotes or other information you might have about that article if there was additional information in Zotero like abstract and key words or any notes you might have made on that reference invivo brings that in as well and that consent is a linked memo so you'll see all of these little yellow icons I have a number and the internals as well and I can tell in vivo all right show me that linked memo so it's all stored down here in memos and here you can see the linked memo for the Apple B article that brings in the abstract which is helpful because I can see if this is something I want to go track down the keywords and any notes that I might have made for instance need access again just like the external I can click to edit type in more information here now that I have my literature in invivo I want to get a high-level view of what some potential trends are a word frequency query helps me to identify possible themes in my data by calculating frequently used words across my literature so here it's just but it showed me the most frequently used words in all of my literature it's ignoring filler words like it and is and that because it has a stop words list if I can if I see any words in this list that I want to get rid of and that I think of filler words are not particularly helpful here's one I can add it to the stop words list when I rerun my query that word is now excluded another useful tool and a word frequency query is the ability to automatically group words together so right now it's at counting exact matches so it's counting learning as a different word then learned or learn same with education counting it as a different word than educational so I can tell invivo to group stem words together which will give me a different view of my data so now you'll see that the word order has changed slightly with different words pulled up to the top of my list in my reference view here I'm sorry my summary view I can see the list of the words that have been grouped together if I click down to the word clown and I can actually just quickly on doc let's get a little bit more space take a look at this word Club so in vivo creates a word cloud which visualizes the results of the word frequency query should be relatively familiar it's a larger the word the more frequently it appears I've got some control over how the word cloud looks so if I want to change color font I can do that I can export it as a static image and use it in a presentation or report but within in vivo it's live to the data so I can explore the use of a word by running a text search query from within a word frequency query or on its own so let's say I want to learn more about what people are saying about learning in my interviews what types of learning or learning theories are present in my data so when Google is going to automatically search for learning and any one of its stems right now it's looking in both the memos and in all of my sources my memos my PDFs and any externals I might have if I want it to just look at my PDFs I can tell it to just look in internals and rerun my queries so I don't have any duplicates so the text search query helps me to explore the use context and meaning of words and help me begin to see if an idea or concept is prevalent across my data so it opened to the summary view which gave me a list of all the articles in which any one of the word learn or its stems appears the reference view I can see the word learning or stems with a little bit of context FIFO will also generate a word tree this might be another one that we want to get a bigger view on let's do that so what the word tree is doing is taking the context around the word learning and grouping it on two branches and this way I can easily identify trends and potential themes in my data so if this'll load for me there we go so I can see what people are saying about learning grouped under branches so it helps me really pick out what people are saying writing frequently about learning I can see that there are numerous mentions to different kinds of learning incidental learning learning experiences so the text on the right appears after the word learning and my literature and the text on the left appears before the word learning you can see learning environments is mentioned free choice learning is discussed and I can quickly without having to read through all of my literature start to get a sense of what's frequently mentioned right what are people really writing about so here's a whole big branch about problem-based learning so let's say I want to see what people are saying about problem-based learning so I can run a text search query for that particular phrase problem-based learning I can modify this query so let's say I see that or I happen to know or I can see in quickly reading here that there's a common acronym so I want to account for that acronym as well um or perhaps it's not always spelled with a hyphen so let's rerun that query so here I can see all instances of problem-based learning across all of my article and quickly because of the sheer number of references I can see here that Daquan and so article is primarily about problem-based learning or discuss this problem-based learning much more than these other two articles here in the reference view it gives me again problem-based learning with a little bit of context and then it generates a new word tree for me I can easily gather together all mentions of problem-based learning and across articles into a note and as a reminder a note is a bucket into which you put qualitative data and nodes gather related material to one place so you can look for emerging patterns or ideas you can create encode to nodes manually which I'll show you in just a moment or automatically through a query such as a text search query or autocoding by theme which we'll cover a little bit later on first I want to grab a little more context I want to know not just how many times problem-based learning is mentioned but what people are saying about problem-based learning what's what's being discussed perhaps what what they did with probably learning in these articles so I want to grab a little bit more context in my query so with narrow context it's going to grab five words on either side and then or get spread even further actually when I if I want to do broad context that would be the whole paragraph so then I can save the results of my query as a new node and call it problem-based learning because I am creating this query or this node as a result of a query it's going to put it in this results folder and I just need to move it up into my main nodes folder to work with it further so here's my problem based query node let's just copy and paste that to my main nodes folder so here I have my note now when I see it I can see when I open it I can see all mentions of problems learning with some context around it as well and you'll notice that the number of references went down because now it's counting the not just the number of times problem-based learning but the number of coding references or blocks of text so you can see here that problem-based learning is mentioned multiple times in a given paragraph okay here in the summary view again I can see of the articles that mention problem-based learning in the reference view I can see the text itself so the text search query is one great way to jump start coding for key concepts you can also manually code the articles as you read them so I could potentially create a new node called gas and the literature anytime a gap is mentioned in an article like a code that there say I'm also interested in keeping track of findings of these different studies I can create a node encode that data there so let's explore what we're seeing about problem-based learning so this first mention of problem-based learning is first coding reference is actually a citation for another article about problem-based learning so if this was a topic I wanted to explore further I might actually want to go pursue this article and so that I can help expand my literature search or confirm that I've got everything I want to look into the second articles that Kwan and so article that's focused on problem-based learning so let's take a look at that article to see what it says zoom out a little bit to the middle of the article let's go back to the top so because I've accessed the article from within a node it's highlighted all the text that's coded to the node another tool I like to have on when I'm coding is something called a coding stripe so the highlighting shows you coding for one note and the coding stripes shows you're coding for many nodes so you can see I've got highlighting for problem based learning and I've got this coding stripe over here as well if I don't think that this some of this text should be coming to the node for instance let's say I don't want to bother coding the abstract I can select this data and uncoded from the problem it's learning node now you'll see that the highlighting is gone and the coding stripe has disappeared as well and when I return to the node you'll see that the coding for the abstract has been removed as well I can code for additional topics in my article as well perhaps other types of learning or benefits and drawbacks of this particular approach so let's say I'm reading through this article and I notice that you know this text appears to be about the benefits of problem-based learning I can code this to a new node called benefits it's also coded to problem-based learning so you'll see that I now have additional coding stripe here called benefits and that overlaps with my problem based learning node and down the line if I wanted to bring up all the places where people mentioned the benefits of problem-based learning or benefits of a different learning theory I can tell them vivos show me all the places where there's coding to benefits and problem-based learning and it will bring up the matching text for me another tool that is useful and only available in nvivo plus is auto coding by steam so our coding by theme can help you start to figure out what trends patterns are in your literature by analyzing frequently used noun phrases so what in vivo is doing now is reading through my literature and seeing what people are frequently writing about and then grouping those into themes so it's identifying common noun phrases and then it will code those to a node and organize those nodes into a hierarchy so it's going to take just a few moments as it's reading through so this can be a particularly useful tool as a jumping off point so if you want to quickly see what some trends on your literature you can of course always reorganize these nodes add data to them delete nodes but if you have access to in vivo plus then this is a great feature when you're working with a lot of text-based data so here you can see that most frequently appearing theme in my data is related to learning and it's captured all of the noun phrases related to learning so learning outcomes meaningful learning learning activities and so on and these are organized by the number of mentions another frequently appearing noun phrase is related to program so the difference between this and a word frequency query is this actually does the coding for you I can choose to code broadly or narrowly and let's go ahead and code it to or put it in its own folder called Auto coded themes okay so on the right a visualization will come up but we'll come back to that first I want to show you here's the autocoding by theme itself I'm going to make this much smaller over here so under nodes as a new folder called autocoding by theme and it's organized your data in here and if I were to open up any one of these nodes for instance theological I can see all mentions of ecological concepts across all of my data so this can be a really useful way to start to organize your literature when you run autocoding by theme invivo generates what's called a hierarchy chart so a hierarchy chart gives you a high-level overview of your coding so you can generate a hierarchy chart an envelope row and Plus this one is generated as a result of the auto coding by theme which is only available in plus and in hierarchy charts is a tool to help you visualize coding patterns or attribute values so this is the auto coding or the coding for all the concepts across all of my litter term the larger the box the more frequently the more coding references for that concepts the more frequently that concept was mentioned when you're working with auto coding by theme when I first opened this there were many smaller boxes nested within the larger ones and those represent child nodes so I can change the view level to just view the upper here we go the parent node I can also zoom in I can click on one of these boxes and zoom in to see all these child nodes and these are live to the data so if I want to view the actual text I can do that I can return to all of my nodes here there we go I can change the chart as well to just view one article so I can see how these different articles might talk about different concepts so in this way you might compare coding for several articles so let's say I'm only interested in what this article talked about I can see that this article does discuss different things so urban and development are much larger boxes than they were before you can of course choose to export the hierarchy chart as well as a static image I can also choose to visualize attribute values or bibliographic information so I can quickly see for instance which articles were published in what year so let's take a look at my W graphic information that was brought in from Zotero and let's see I want to see the breakdown of Wynn articles were published and who published when when I click finish it will create another hierarchy chart again this opens up a tree map when looking at things like attribute values I particularly like the sunburst visualization so like the tree map this is dynamic so the inner circle showing me the year in which the article was published in the outer circle represents the authors were the number of articles so if I wanted to see who had published in 2005 I can click on that wedge of the pine will zoom in I can choose to export this as well another way to look across articles at themes is a framework matrix it's similar to a matrix coding query but designed specifically to facilitate cross case analysis and produces text summaries rather than counts of coding references my first step is to create my articles as cases so let's return these articles and really the only reason I'm doing this is because the framework matrix only works with cases so I've created each article as a case node so here you can see that each article has its own case now now I can go ahead and create my framework from tricks so we're going to create this called sample and now I need to select my cases so this is the reason why I need you to create cases and then I can select some themes that I might find interesting so this is I think a lot more useful once you've done quite a bit of coding so I'm going to select some of my auto coded by theme nose and click OK so once in vivo brings up my framework matrix you'll actually see that it's empty so I'll have some text off to the right or add in so when you click in here but I and people will actually auto summarize the text for me so it will fill in those blanks with the text that's coded to those nodes from those articles so here I can see all discussion of ecological concepts in the Barnett article and environmental concepts in the Barnett article this article does not discuss fishing but it does discuss geography I can also type my own notes perhaps I want to note the fact that it's interesting there is no discussion of fishing or perhaps it's not and I might want to change the color of this to indicate that it's my own note rather than the auto summarize text I can also take my framework matrix outside of invivo and work with it as an Excel spreadsheet the last thing I want to show you today is the Explorer diagram which will help you visualize connections between articles so using an explorer diagram I can see all the nodes to which a given article is coded so I'm going to go ahead and return to my articles let's play with that stern article again and I want to see what topics are coded hub does the stern article have coding for so it showed me all of the nodes for which there is coding so again these are all generated from auto coding by theme and so there's a lot of concepts here this could be this is a very rich article and you can also generate an explore diagram from your manual coding as well if I want to see what other articles might discuss the same concept or have coding for that node I can change the focus so what other articles discuss urban topics so here I can see okay I've got both cases and PDFs because I had to create cases for the framework matrix I've got some duplicates here that's fine I can turn that off and these are all the articles that discuss an urban context to their environmental education program just like all other visualizations this is exportable as a static image and it's designed to help you step forwards and backwards through your data changing the focus whether it's a particular article or subject so I'm going to do a quick check if you have a question please do send it over so a couple of things one question was about if the text is not recognized and I believe at least one of these doesn't have the text recognized I think it's this one um yes so if the text is not recognized you can still code em however then you will not be able to use things like the text or to query the word frequency query and autocoding by theme the way you would then code that is by region so you would tell in vivo code this area of text to a node and when I turn on coding stripes you'll see that I have now I have coding for that particular concept associated with that selection of the PDF so the by the way if you have a question specific to your project we're happy to answer those that we would like to do that offline so we're going to ask you to send us an email with your question and I will provide contact information at the end of today's session so a coding stripe by the way is designed to show you the different concepts that you have coded for it so it's like a visual check mark of what you've coded your article to so when I'm coding I like to have nodes recently coding turned on so I can see yep i coded that to benefits i coded this to problem-based learning i coded this to findings so let me clarify what visualization options are available in pro vs. plus the ability to create a hierarchy chart from menu coding is available in an people Pro and in vivo plus so you could generate it from any set of nodes the hierarchy chart is also generated as a result of autocoding by team autocoding by theme is only available in plus the explore diagram is available in both Pro and Plus I believe it is also available in star turn two you can absolutely import literature from EndNote and if you would like to review this webinar again in the future please check out our YouTube channel you should receive a link and sometimes those don't go through but we do have I believe a previous recording for this webinar available online at YouTube on our us our international youtube channel so if you check that out and look for the meet and Viva playlist of the article all of the webinars as we do them as we record them will be uploaded to meet in vivo unless there's some sort of issue with recording please feel free to reach out to us at any point in time should you want access to we're recording or have any issues accessing them the last question I've gotten is how is the framework matrix different from the other matrix so i mentioned another type of matrix with an in vivo that's called a matrix coding query so the matrix coding query allows you to cross tabulate your data and will produce counts so whereas the framework matrix is specifically designed for cross case analysis my matrix coding could be looking at how nodes by nodes and and attributes by nodes cases by other themed nodes where is the framework matrix is designed to look specifically only across cases at themes sounds like um if you're bringing in and said so I'm reading a specific question about coding tables and Word documents and I think probably your best bet is to take that question offline and as well as the question about the mind map in fact if you have a if you're interested in a mind map I encourage you to join our overview webinar which is being given tomorrow afternoon at 3 o'clock which they do discuss over my Maps and we also have recordings of those webinars available as well but the question about coding tables and Word documents is a little tricky if you are working with a PDF however your best bet even if the text is recognized too is to code by region if you've got a table in there ok so let me move back into PowerPoint and wrap up so as I'm wrapping up this afternoon I want to provide you with some information about licensing options but also about ways to get more information or additional help about how to Kingston FIFO we offer discounted student licenses for invivo starter and pro these are full functionality but limited to 12 months you can also choose to purchase a full license which is a perpetual one-time license for individuals you can also choose to purchase an optional subscription which entitles you to priority support and any new versions that are released during the term of your subscription if there's a group that's interested in using nvivo you might consider or include that's interested in working as a team and in vivo are you might consider the invivo for team server add-on which allows groups to work simultaneously in the same project you can work collaboratively interview with outed vivo for teams but the add-on ensures streamlined secure collaboration and if there's a group of your organization that's interested in using in vivo you might consider an enterprise License Agreement there are a number of benefits to being an ala holder with us including free access to new versions and priorities support if you'd like to try and be gone before you buy please check out our free 14-day trial which is available from the website queues are national we want to make sure you are successful with your in vivo project and so to that end we offer some paid training and free resources on the paid training side we offer on-site classroom workshops that are typically two days long check out our event calendar to see if we're coming to the city near you and if you have a group that's interested in learning in vivo let us know we're happy to set up a training we also offer online courses at a beginner and more advanced level these are self-paced and students receive a discount if you'd like to sit down with us to discuss your project we're happy to set up an individual consulting session just in words so if you want to set up a web-based customized training we can do that for you as well on the free resources side again that handout attached a good webinar includes links to everything that I'm about to mention that YouTube channel the queue is our international youtube channel that has a lot of recent recordings of webinars had two videos and again this recording of this webinar will be not made available on youtube as well another great resource are user communities we have a Facebook page LinkedIn group user forums in an active Twitter community these are great places to interact with other people users and get answers from one of our experts there are many links to our online help documents on that handout which is a great place to get detailed information for how to do anything in nvivo and keep an eye out on our event calendar for additional free webinars I made in vivo series is a great way to get acquainted with useful features and in vivo so if you have a question specific to your project or something we didn't get to today please reach out to us at Americans at quha zono national calm and I like to post our twitter handles main Twitter handles IQs aren't our support team is available through website quha zono national calm as well as their twitter handle's IQs are sup and I'm a Dan Weinman laughs I like to answer questions and supporter and vivo community any way that I can all right thank you for joining me this afternoon and best of luck with your own people projects

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