Poles | Wikipedia audio article



the pols polish policy pronounced peel @s singular masculine pollock singular feminine polka commonly referred to as the Polish people are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry culture history and are native speakers of the Polish language the population of self-declared poles in Poland is estimated at 37 million three hundred ninety-four thousand out of an overall population of thirty-eight million five hundred thirty eight thousand based on the 2011 census of whom 36 million five hundred twenty two thousand declared polish alone a wide ranging Polish diaspora the Polonia exists throughout Europe the Americas and in Australasia today the largest urban concentrations of poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas poland's history dates back over a thousand years to see 932 960 AD when the poland's an influential west slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region now home to such cities as Poznan Nez no Kalish conan and wars s mia united various legit ik tribes under what became the PIAA esti dynasty thus creating the polish state the subsequent Christianisation of Poland in 966 C II marked Poland's Advent to the community of Western Christendom poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor notable polish émigré s– many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes have included physicists Marie Sklodowska Curie and Joseph Rotblat mathematician Stanislaw ulam pianists for Derek Chopin and Arthur Rubinstein actresses helena modjeska and Pola Negri novelist Joseph Conrad military leaders Taddy use Kosciuszko and Casimir Pulaski US national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski politician Rosa Luxemburg filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers cartoonist Max Fleischer and cosmeticians Helena Bernstein and Max Factor topic origins slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years they organized into tribal units of which the larger ones were later known as the Polish tribes the names of many tribes are found on the list compiled by the anonymous Bavarian geographer in the 9th century in the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula the vista lands within the great Moravian Empire sphere the Baltic Sea coast and in greater Poland the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state Poland one of the West Slavic nations the concept which has become known as the PIAA st idea the chief proponent of which was Jan Ludwig Poplawski is based on the statement that the PIAA st homeland was inhabited by so-called native aboriginal Slavs and Slavonic poles since time immemorial and only later was infiltrated by alien Celts Germans Baltic peoples and others after 1945 the so-called autochthonous or aboriginal school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland and a considerable degree of popular support according to this view the lusatian culture which archaeologists have identified between the odor and the Vistula in the early iron age is said to be Slavonic all non Slavonic tribes and peoples recorded in the area at various points in ancient times are dismissed as migrants and visitors in contrast the critics of this theory such as Maria Kim Buddha's regard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs is largely uncharted the Slavonic connections of the lusatian culture are entirely imaginary in the presence of an ethnically mixed and constantly changing collection of peoples on the middle European Plain is taken for granted you you topic statistics Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union estimates vary depending on source though available data suggests a total number of around 60 million people worldwide with roughly 21 million living outside of Poland many of whom are not of Polish ethnicity but Polish nationals there are almost 38 million poles in Poland alone there are also Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including Germany and indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia northern and eastern Lithuania Western Ukraine and Western Belarus there are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova there is also a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War two the total number of poles in what was the former Soviet Union is estimated at up to 3 million the term Polonia is usually used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside polish borders officially estimated at around 10 to 20 million there is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States Brazil and Canada France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a relatively large polish descendent population poles have lived in France since the 18th century in the early 20th century over a million Polish people settled in France mostly during world wars among them polish émigré is fleeing either Nazi occupation or later Soviet rule in the United States a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago Ohio Detroit New Jersey New York City Orlando Pittsburgh Buffalo and New England the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality as in New Britain Connecticut the majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War two the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970 and after the end of communism in Poland in 1989 in Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in paraná state smaller but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul espírito Santo and South Paulo state the city of Curitiba has the second largest polish diaspora in the world after Chicago and polish music dishes and culture are quite common in the region a recent large migration of poles took place following Poland's accession to the European Union and opening of the EU labor market with an approximate number of two million primarily young poles taking up jobs abroad it is estimated that over half a million Polish people have come to work in the United Kingdom from Poland since 2011 poles have been able to work freely throughout the EU and not just in the United Kingdom Ireland and Sweden where they have had full working rights since Poland's EU accession in 2004 the Polish community in Norway has increased substantially and has grown to a total number of 120,000 making poles the largest immigrant group in Norway topic culture the culture of Poland has a history of 1,000 years Poland located in Central Europe developed a character that was influenced by its geography at the confluence of fellow Central European cultures Austrian Czech German Hungarian and Slovak as well as from Western European cultures French Spanish and Dutch southern European cultures Italian and Greek Baltic northeastern cultures Lithuanian Estonian and Latvian Eastern European cultures Belarusian and Ukrainian and Western Asian Caucasian cultures Ottoman Turkish Armenian and Georgian influences were also conveyed by immigrants Hungarian Slovak Czech Jewish German and Dutch political alliances with Lithuania Hungary Saxony France and Sweden conquests of the Polish Lithuanian state Ukraine Belarus Moldova Romania and Latvia and conquerors of the polish lands the Russian Empire Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg monarchy later to be known as the Austrian Empire or austria-hungary over time polish culture has been greatly influenced by its ties with the Germanic Hungarian and Latin 8th world and other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland the people of Poland have traditionally been seen as hospitable to artists from abroad especially Italy and open to cultural and artistic trends popular in other European countries owing to this central location the poles came very early into contact with both civilizations eastern and western and as a result developed economically culturally and politically a German general Helmick Karl von Moltke in his Poland a historical sketch 1885 stated that Poland of the 15th century was one of the most civilized States of Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and economic activity experiencing severe crises especially during World War two and in the following years these factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art with all its complex nuances Poland was for centuries a refuge to many Jews from all over Europe in the 20th century a large number emigrated to Israel several prominent Israeli statesmen were born in Poland including Israel's founder David ben-gurion former President of Israel Shimon Peres and Prime Minister's Yitzhak Shamir and Menachem Begin you topic language the Polish language polish jezic Polsky is a West Slavic language in the official language of Poland it's written form uses the polish alphabet which is the Latin alphabet with the addition of a few diacritic marks Poland is the most linguistically homogeneous European country nearly 97% of Poland citizens declare Polish as their mother tongue elsewhere ethnic poles constitute large minorities in Germany northern Slovakia and the Czech Republic Hungary Northeast Lithuania and Western Belarus and Ukraine polish is the most widely used minority language in Lithuania Vilnius County 26% of the population according to the 2001 census results and is found elsewhere in north eastern and western Lithuania in Ukraine it is most common in the Western l'viv and Vohland Oblast provinces while in Western Belarus it is used by the significant polish minority especially in the breast and Grodno regions and in areas along the lithuanian border the geographical distribution of the polish language was greatly affected by the border changes and population transfers that followed World War two poles resettled in not recovered territories in the West and north some poles remained in the previously polish ruled territories in the East that were annexed by the USSR resulting in the present-day polish speaking minorities in Lithuania Belarus and Ukraine although many poles were expelled or emigrated from those areas to areas within poland's new borders meanwhile the flight and expulsion of Germans as well as the expulsion of Ukrainians and resettlement of Ukrainians with in Poland contributed to the country's linguistic homogeneity Polish speakers use the language in a uniform manner throughout most of Poland though numerous languages and dialects coexist alongside the standard Polish language the most common dialects in Poland are Silesian spoken in Upper Silesia and kashubian widely spoken in the north you topic science and technology education has been of prime interest to Poland since the early 12th century the catalog of the library of the cathedral chapter in krakow dating from 1110 shows that polish scholars already then had access to literature from all over europe in 1364 king casimir the third the great founded the krakow academy which would become jagiellonian university one of the great universities of Europe the Polish people have made considerable contributions in the fields of science technology and mathematics the list of early famous scientists in Poland begins with the 13th century Vitello and includes the polymath and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the earth at its center the publication of Copernicus book de revolutionibus orbeum coalesced ium on the revolutions of the celestial spheres just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of science triggering the Copernican revolution and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution in 1773 King Stanislaw Auguste Poniatowski established the Commission of national education the world's first Ministry of Education after the 1795 third partition of Poland no free Polish state existed the 19th and 20th centuries some many polish scientists working abroad the greatest was Maria Sklodowska Curie 1867 to 1934 a physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity and was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize the first person and only woman to win twice the only person to win twice in multiple sciences and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel prizes another notable Polish expatriate scientist was Ignace Edo Maiko 1802 to 89 a geologist and mineralogist who lived and worked in South America in Chile kazimierz funk 1884 to 1967 whose name is commonly anglicized as Casimir funk was a Polish biochemist generally credited with being among the first to formulate in 1912 the concept of vitamins which he called vital amines or vitamins according to NASA Polish scientists were among the pioneers of rocketry in the first half of the 20th century Poland was a world center of mathematics outstanding polish mathematicians formed the luaus school of mathematics including Stefan Banach Hugo Steinhaus Stanislaw ulam and Warsaw school of mathematics including alfred tarski Kazimierz Carretas ski/walk la sierpinski world war ii pushed many of them into exile benoît mandelbrot family left poland when he was still a child an alumnus of the warsaw school of mathematics was Antony Sigmund a shaper of twentieth-century mathematical analysis marian rejewski 1905 to 80 a Polish mathematician in December 1932 solved the plugboard equipped Enigma machine the main cipher device used by Nazi Germany the Cryptologic successes of reduce key and his mathematician colleagues Jersey R is its key and Henrik Ziegel ski over six and a half years later jump-started British reading of enigma in the Second World War the intelligence again codenamed ultra contributed perhaps decisively to the defeat of Germany Sir Joseph Rotblat 1908 to 2005 a Polish physicist who left the u.s. Manhattan Project on grounds of conscience his work on nuclear fallout was a major contribution toward the ratification of the 1963 partial nuclear test ban treaty a signatory of the Russell Einstein manifesto he was secretary-general of the Pugwash conferences on science and world affairs from their founding until 1973 he shared with the Pugwash conferences the 1995 Nobel Peace for efforts toward nuclear disarmament hilary cope rouse key 1916 to 2013 was a polish virologist and immunologist and the inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine while in the united states he authored or co-authored over 875 scientific papers and co-edited several scientific journals Aleksandr Wolfson born 1946 a Polish astronomer is the co-discoverer of the first extrasolar planets and pulsar planets today Poland has over 100 institutions of post-secondary education technical medical economic as well as 500 universities located in major cities such as Gdansk Cracow wrote soif Lublin Lodz Poznan aschoff and Warsaw they employ over 61 thousand scientists and scholars another 300 research and development Institute's are home to some 10,000 researchers there are also a number of smaller laboratories altogether these institutions support some 91 thousand scientists and scholars topic music the origin of Polish music can be traced as far back as the thirteenth century from which manuscripts have been found in Sterry such containing polyphonic compositions related to the Parisian Notre Dame school other early compositions such as the melody of Boger ojika may also date back to this period the first known notable composer however mikolaj Zira de Mia lived in the 15th century during the sixteenth century mostly to musical groups both based in Cracow and belonging to the king and Archbishop avowal led the rapid innovation of Polish music composers writing during this period include Waclaw of shambo Tully Mikolaj zalenski and Mikolaj Homolka Diomedes Kato a native-born Italian who lived in Cracow from about the age of five became one of the most famous lutenist sat the court of Sigismund the third and not only imported some of the musical styles from southern Europe but blended them with native folk music topic 17th 18th centuries in the last year's of the sixteenth century in the first part of the 17th century a number of Italian musicians were guests at the Royal Courts of King Sigismund the third Vasa and his son will oddest law IV these included Luca Morenci Oh giovanni francesco and REO and marco scotchy polish composers from this period focused on baroque religious music concertos for voices instruments and Basso continuo a tradition that continued into the 18th century the best remembered composer of this period is Adam Jersey Basuki known for his instrumental works such as chromatic ax Tambor Etta Centinela Ben Truvada and Nova Casa other composers include Jagger was eager cheeky front g-shock lilius Bart well may pikia Stanislaus Sylvester char's in ski and marching meal to ski in addition a tradition of operatic production began in Warsaw in 1628 with a performance of Galatea composer uncertain the first Italian opera produced outside Italy shortly after this performance the court produced Francesca cuchinis opera la liberación Edie Ruggiero Dali sole adult sheena which she had written for prince will add a slaw three years earlier when he was in italy another first this is the earliest surviving opera written by a woman when we'll Ladislaw became king as well la de la ivy he oversaw the production of at least ten operas during the late 1630s and 1640s making warsaw a center of the art the composers of these operas are not known they may have been pulls working under marco scotchy in the royal chapel or they may have been among the Italians imported by wool lattice law the late 17th century in the 18th century saw Poland in socio-political decline which hindered the development of music some composers such as Jan Stefani and Maciej Kaminski attempted to create a Polish opera others imitated foreign composers such as Hyden and Mozart the most important development in this time however was the polonaise perhaps the first distinctively Polish art music polonaise is for piano were and remained popular such as those by Mahal clef as oginski Carol Karpinski Julius Zaretsky Henrik we now ski meetcha slot Karlovich Joseph Elsner and most famously for Derek Chopin Chopin remains very well known and is regarded for composing a wide variety of works including mazurkas nocturnes waltzes and concertos and using traditional polish elements in his pieces the same period saw Stanislaw bogna schoo the leading individual in the successful development of Polish opera still renowned for operas like halka in the Haunted Manor you topic traditional music polish folk music was collected in the 19th century by Oskar Kohlberg as part of a wave of Polish national revival with the coming of the World Wars and then the communist state folk traditions were oppressed or subsumed into state-approved folk ensembles the most famous of the state ensembles are masasa and slask both of which still perform though these bands had a regional touch to their output the overall sound was a homogenized mixture of polish styles there were more authentic state supported groups such as slow Yankee but the communists sanitized image of folk music made the whole field seem unhip to young audiences and many traditions dwindled rapidly polish dance music especially the mazurka and polonaise were popularized by Frederic Chopin and they soon spread across Europe and elsewhere these are triple time dances while five beat forms are more common in the Northeast and duple time dances like the krikawa come from the south the polonaise comes from the French word for polish to identify its origin among the polish aristocracy and nobility who had adapted the dance from a slower walking dance called Chosun II the polonaise then re-entered the lower-class musical life and became an integral part of Polish music topic literature Polish literature as the literary tradition of Poland most Polish literature has been written in the Polish language though other languages used in Poland over the centuries have also contributed to polish literary traditions including Latin German Yiddish Ruthenian Ukrainian Belarusian Hungarian Slovak Czech Lithuanian and Esperanto topic Middle Ages almost nothing remains of Polish literature prior to the country's Christianization in 966 Poland's pagan inhabitant certainly possessed an oral literature extending to Slavic songs legends and beliefs but early Christian writers did not deem it worthy of mention in the obligatory Latin and so it has perished the first recorded sentence in the polish language reads de hoodia pobres ah a tipo zy let me grind and you take a rest a paraphrase of the latin sign lute ego etiam Mowlam the work in which this phrase appeared reflects the culture of early Poland the sentence was written within the Latin language Chronicle libor fundation is from between 1269 and 1273 a history of the Cistercian monastery in henry cow Silesia it was recorded by an abbot known simply as Peter Peter referring to an event almost a hundred years earlier the sentence was supposedly uttered by a bohemian settler bagua bog Wallis bomis a subject of bull s wofe the tall expressing compassion for his own wife who very often stood grinding by the corn stone most notable early medieval Polish works in Latin and the old polish language include the oldest extant manuscript of fine prose in the polish language entitled the Holy Cross sermons as well as the earliest Polish language Bible of Queen Sophia and the chronicle of janko of Zarco from the 14th century not to mention the Palau II solder in the early 1470s one of the first printing houses in Poland was set up by Casper Straub in Krakow see spread of the printing press in 1475 Caspar Elian of Glogau Glogau set up a printing shop in Breslau wrote swath Silesia 20 years later the first Cyrillic printing house was founded at crack out by SH Y polt file for Eastern Orthodox Church hierarchs the most notable texts produced in that period include st. Florian's breviary printed partially in Polish in the late 14th century statua Sinha Dalia radoslav en SIA 1475 a printed collection of Polish and Latin prayers as well as janda Lugosi's Chronicle from the 15th century and his catalog is our key Episcopal Nez Nan's iam topic Renaissance with the advent of the Renaissance the Polish language was finally accepted in Poland on an equal footing with Latin polish art and culture flourished under the Jagiellonian dynasty and many foreign poets and writers settled in Poland bringing new literary trends with them these writers included Cala match Filippo bonaccorsi and Konrad Psaltis Mikolaj rej and Jan Cahoon offski laid the foundations for the polish literary language and modern Polish grammar the first book written entirely in the Polish language appeared in this period a prayer book by biernat of Lublin see a 1465 after 1529 Rajesh nee hoor tooless Anna Mae Eden of the soul printed in Krakow in 1513 at one of Poland's first printing establishments operated by Florian Unger originally from Bavaria many polish writers studied abroad and at the Cracow Academy now Jagiellonian University which became a melting pot for new ideas and currents in this period as she had had earlier and would also have in the future Poland had notable philosophers including Niklaus Copernicus Sebastian Petri see Andre fried madre zu ski war zinnia curse Malaga slicky Jan Johnston a Briton Jan a Miss Kaminski a check and Stanislaw lijinsky a polish king another notable literary figure from this period is piotr skarga 1536 to 1612 a polish jesuit preacher hagiography polemicist and leading figure of the counter-reformation in the polish-lithuanian commonwealth his greatest works include the lives of the saints Zawadi swedish 1579 which was for several centuries one of the most popular books in the polish language and the same sermons gazania Sejm o 1597 a political treatise which became popular in the second half of the 19th century when skarga was seen as the patriotic seer who predicted the partitions of Poland in 1488 the world's first literary society the soda lead is littéraire invest Alana the Vistula literary society was founded in Krakow notable members included Konrad salts Albert brewski Philip callimachus and Laurentiis Corvinus topic baroque Polish Baroque literature 1622 1764 was influenced by the popularization of Jesuit secondary schools which offered an education based on Latin classics as part of a preparation for a career in politics the study of poetry required practical skill in writing both Latin and polish poems and radically increased the numbers of poets and versa fires countrywide some exceptional writers grew up as well in the soil of humanistic education Peter Cohen offski 1566 to 1620 produced a translation of torquato tasso jerusalem delivered poet laureate Maciej Kazimierz rbf's key became known throughout europe for his latin writings as Horatius christian as' the christian horace jan andre Morstan 1621 to 1693 epicurean courtier and diplomat extolled in his sophisticated poems the value of Earthly Delights and Waclaw pototsky 1621 to 96 the most productive writer of the Polish Baroque United typical polish galata nobility views with deeper reflections and existential experiences other notable polish poets and prose writers of the period included topic enlightenment the period of Polish enlightenment began in the 1730's to 40s and peaked in the second half of the 18th century during the reign of Poland's last king Stanislaw Auguste Poniatowski it went into sharp decline with the third and final partition of Poland 1795 followed by political cultural and economic destruction of the country and leading to the great emigration of Polish elites the Enlightenment ended around 1822 and was replaced by polish Romanticism at home and abroad the crowning achievements of Polish enlightenment include the adoption of the constitution of the 3rd of may 1791 europe's oldest written constitution as well as the creation of the commission of national education the world's first Ministry of Education one of the leading Polish enlightenment poets was Ignace II Chris it's key 1735 to 1801 known as the Prince of poets and Poland's LaFontaine author of fables and parables as well as the first polish novel called The Adventures of mr. Nicklaus wisdom Macaulay a dose wit schinsky a go pers Apache he was also a playwright journalist encyclopedist and translator from French and Greek another prominent writer of the period was Jan pototsky 1761 to 1815 a Polish nobleman Egyptologist linguist and adventurer whose travel memoirs made him legendary in his homeland outside Poland he is known chiefly for his novel the manuscript found in Saragosa which has drawn comparisons to such celebrated works as the Decameron in the Arabian Nights you topic Romanticism due to the three successive partitions carried out by three adjacent empires ending the existence of the sovereign polish state in 1795 polish Romanticism unlike romanticism elsewhere in Europe was largely a movement for independence from foreign occupation and expressed the ideals and traditional way of life of the Polish people the period of romanticism in Poland ended with the Russian empires suppression of the January 1863 uprising culminating in public executions and deportations to Siberia the literature of Polish romanticism falls into two distinct sub periods each ended by an insurgency the first circa 1820 to 30 ending with the November 1830 uprising and the second 1830 to 64 giving rise to polish positivism in the first romantic sub period polish romantics were heavily influenced by other European romantics their work featured emotionalism and imagination folklore and country life in addition to the aspiration for independence the sub periods most famous writers were atom meets Kovac sewer and gosh gin ski Tomas zan and Morrissey McNutt ski in the second romantic sub period after the November 1830 uprising many Polish romantics worked abroad driven from Poland by the occupying powers their work became dominated by the aspiration to regain their country's lost sovereignty elements of mysticism became more prominent also the concept of the three bards trz EJ we developed the ycz functioned as spiritual leader to the suppressed people the most notable poet of the three bards so recognized in both Polish romantic sub periods was Adam meats kovitch the other two national bards were Julius Slutsky and zigmund Krasinski topic positivism in the wake of the failed January 1863 uprising against Russian occupation a new period of thought and literature polish positivism proceeded to advocate level-headedness skepticism the exercise of Reason and organic work positivist writers argued for the establishment of equal rights for all members of society for the assimilation of Poland's Jewish minority and for defense of Western Poland's population in the German occupied part of Poland against the german cultur Kampf and the displacement of the Polish populace by German colonization writers such as bola soif Pross sought to educate the public about a constructive patriotism that would enable Polish society to function as a fully integrated social organism regardless of external circumstances another influential Polish novelist active in that period was Henrik Sienkiewicz who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1905 the positivist period lasted until the turn of the 20th century in the advent of the young Poland movement you topic young Poland 1892 1918 the modernist period known as the young Poland movement in visual arts literature and music came into being around 1890 and concluded with the Poland's return to independence 1918 the period was based on two concepts it's early stage was characterized by a strong aesthetic opposition to the ideals of its own predecessor promoting organic work in the face of foreign occupation artists following this early philosophy of young Poland believed in decadence symbolism conflict between human values and civilization and the existence of art for art's sake prominent authors who followed this trend included joseph conrad kazimierz pusher of a tete Majer Stanislaw pris bouzouki and Jan Kaas Povich topic restored independence 1918 239 literature in the second polish Republic 1918 239 spanned a brief but exceptionally fertile period with the restoration of the country's independence at the end of World War one Poland developed socio-politically and culturally new avant-garde currents emerged the interbellum of just twenty years between the world wars fostered numerous notable writers including Julian tuam Stanislaw ignacy Wicca wits daddy used Oleg amassed ovitch wid old Gombrich Czeslaw Milosz maria Dubrowski and Zofia Neil Kafka who saw themselves as exponents of an evolving and advancing European civilization you topic after 1945 much of Polish literature written during the occupation of Poland appeared in print only after the end of World War two including books by nil Kafka read Nicky borovsky and others the Soviet takeover of the country did not discourage Emma greys and exiles from returning especially before the advent of Stalinism indeed many writers attempted to recreate the Polish literary scene often with a touch of nostalgia for the pre-war reality including Jersey and jf key author of ashes and diamonds describing the political and moral dilemmas associated with the anti-communist resistance in Poland his novel was adapted into film a decade later by Vita the new emerging prose writers such as Stanislaw die gat and stefank Zalewski approached the catastrophe of war from their own perspective Kazimierz Vica coined a term borderline novel for documentary fiction in the second half of the 20th century a number of Polish writers and poets achieved international recognition including Stanislaw LEM Czeslaw Milosz Nobel Prize in Literature 1980 the big knee of Herbert Slava Mir Mirage ik v suave Szymborska Nobel Prize in Literature 1996 Jerzy Kosinski Adams Agra juice ki Andrzej Sapkowski and Olga Tucker chick you topic theater and cinema at present the polish theatre actor possibly best known outside the country as Andre Soren who in the years 1984 to 1988 was a member of the International group formed by Peter Brook to work on the staging of the Mahabharata and since 1993 has been linked with the Comedie Francaise the most revered actor of the second half of the 20th century in Poland is generally considered to be Taddy Aslam Natsuki who died in 1992 of a heart attack while rehearsing King Lear during the second half of the 90s there appeared in Polish dramatic theater a new generation of young directors who have attempted to create productions relevant to the experience and problems of a 30-something generation brought up surrounded by mass culture habituated to a fast-moving lifestyle but at the same time evermore lost in the world of consumer capitalism there is no strict division in Poland between theater and film directors and actors therefore many stage artists are known to theater goers from films of Andrej Vita for example voice check piezo niak Daniel Olbrich ski Christina janda Jersey rads áwillá vich and from films of Christoph Kozlowski notable actors from Poland include Jersey stir Janusz gah hos Jersey Scola mouse key and me Hall zabrosky polish actors and actresses that achieved great success overseas mostly in Hollywood include Bella Darvey Pola Negri Ross Martin Ingrid Pitt Ned Glass Lee Strasberg Isabella score up ko Paul Wesley and John Bluth all notable Hollywood American actors and actresses of Polish descent include David Arquette Carol Baker born Karolina Piekarski Christine Baranski Kristen Bell Maria Bello Jack Benny Charles Bronson Mayim Bialik Cate Blanchett Alex Borstein David Burtka Steve Carell Anna Chlumsky Jennifer Connelly Jesse Eisenberg Estelle Getty Scarlett Johansson Harvey Keitel John Krasinski Lisa Kudrow Ben Stiller Carol Landis Te'o Leone Paul Newman Eli Wallach Jared Padalecki Gweneth Paltrow Robert prosky Maggie Q William Shatner Sarah Silverman leelee sobieski Loretta Swit in others topic religion polls have traditionally adhered to the Christian faith with the majority belonging to the Roman Catholic Church with eighty seven point five percent of polls in 2011 identifying as Roman Catholic the remaining part of the population consists mainly of Protestants especially Lutheran's Orthodox Christians Jehovah's Witnesses those irreligious and Judaism mostly from the Jewish populations in Poland who have lived there prior to World War two in addition many Polish Tatars are Sunni Muslims Roman Catholics live all over the country while Orthodox Christians can be found mostly in northeast in the area of Bialystok and Protestants mainly Lutheran's in Susan's ELISA and warmia Masseria a growing Jewish population exists in major cities especially in Warsaw Krakow and wrote swath over two million Jews of Polish origin reside in the United States Brazil and Israel according to Poland's Constitution freedom of religion as ensured to everyone it also allows for national and ethnic minorities to have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions institutions designed to protect religious identity as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected with their cultural identity religious organizations in the republic of poland can register their institution with the ministry of interior and administration creating a record of churches and other religious organizations who operate under separate polish laws this registration is not necessary however it is beneficial when it comes to serving the freedom of religious practice laws Slovak native faith rods MOOC groups registered with the Polish authorities in 1995 are the native Polish Church Rod's amico shell Polsky which represents a pagan tradition going back to allah desslok collages ages 1921 holy circle of worshipers of swaiiow dewitt sweet kolaches sissy elise widow ada and the polish slavic church Polsky KO shil Slowinski there is also the native faith association zr says any rods image we re zr w founded in 1996 topic XO names among EXO names for poll not native to the Polish people or language is la Li ik used in East Slavic languages today the word Lachi poles is used in Belarusian Ukrainian but now considered offensive and replaced by the neutral palak poly AK and Russian foreign EXO names also include Lithuanian lenka Hungarian Langille ik Turkish lei Armenian layest on layest on and Persian lease tenly Heston topic ethnography you topic central polls let's akkanee lived between Greater Poland and masovia and are an intermediate group originally closer to greater poles but with significant Mazarin fluence –is sir adds a knee on the other hand are surrounded by Greater Poland lesser Poland and Silesia and have been under strong influences of all three provinces they lost much of their original distinctness the main city in this region is Lodz but it originated during the industrial revolution being just a small town before that topic greater polls greater pulls wheel capellini inhabit more or less the original territory of the tribe of poland's from which the names poland and poles are derived as well as other areas where wheel capellini and their dialect expanded throughout history Greater Poland is where the Polish statehood emerged during the 9th and 10th centuries with places such as Nez no GI ecz in Australia Dicky it is the oldest province of Poland Poznan as its main city we can distinguish smaller ethnographic sub divisions among greater poles for example the Palooza neaby scoopin ii near crow bia Bamber's II and Hanna Boise descended from pollen eyes German settlers from the areas of bamberg and Hanover kaliesha C Whelan mazzard sama to Laney ghost in e ne and others due to past migrations and shifting borders of historical regions also to Silesian ethnographic groups live in the territory of wheel cap Alaska has a sea who inhabit the area of Ravitch and koala mia see who live around qalam no cram schoo and stair cram scow topic Chi avians some linguists and ethnographers counted quia viens as a subdivision of greater poles but most recognize their distinct culture and identity they inhabit the areas from Lake dope low in the south to no tech River in the northwest and to Vistula River in the northeast Turin listed on the UNESCO list of world heritage sites since 1997 as located on the border between Kujawa Chelmno land and DA Brazil and other important cities include bid gosht will a clawback and in overawed swath topic lesser poles Milou poll any southern polls can be divided into several major subgroups krakow eeeh see in the historical land of krakow la sevilla see Sandom Aryans Goryeo gorals polish Highlanders Lachi po sonya c villa movie ins house no viens Lublin you see and inhabitants of pod carpe C sub Carpathia such as Delaney Annie Jay Chou ESC polish uplanders are deaf Germans Krakow via C lived to the north of gorals to the east of Silesians to the west of Sandy Miriam's in the north they extend as far as Czestochowa and keels this group can be further subdivided into smaller ethnographic regions among lesser poles especially strongly differentiated are the girls who can be further divided into best get girls podoleni cliche c specious c or avians and several smaller groups in the east lesser polish girls have Ruthenians speaking girls boy COEs lemkos hutsuls and rusyns as their neighbors there is overlap with slovak speaking girls in the south sandy Marian's extend in the north as far as scary shoe and Ilsa in the West beyond Gesine e Lublin you see lived to the east of Sandy Marion's around Lublin Chelm zamosc Tomasz alla Belsky Yano labelled Sookie and bill garage topic masovia pne's Messersmith sylveon's consists of proper moszer's known also as central masses who live from the area between CRPC and pluck up to the lower we eps river between central masses and podlasie as the homeland of eastern masses and in southern parts of warmia Masseria the homeland of Lutheran Prussian masses descended from central masses who settled there in the 14th 15th and 16th centuries and assimilated remnants of Baltic speaking Old Prussian population another medieval expansion of masses to the east into former yacht vin jian ethnically west baltic territories led to the emergence of pseudo vien poles and of podlasie moszer's in the areas around we grow c dolce Paolo II Luke au Sokolow Pulaski will Odawa as far as Bieber River another group descended from a mix of poles mostly mazzard and West bolts are the cur P who lived primarily in push chisel ona and push to be ala the green forest and the white forest yet another subdivision of maz's which developed a very rich folk culture thanks to having special privileges and prosperity our low it's-a-me around Levitch another group our pobres Amy in the areas of mola WA and zucker's the capital of Poland Warsaw is located in the land of central masses however as any large city it has always been a melting pot of people from all regions of Poland and foreigners from abroad it is home to the largest Jewish community in Poland as well as the cultural center of Polish car aims citizens of Warsaw are called VAR Soviets in the early Middle Ages clock was the main city in mazovick along the eastern border of Poland between podlasie and Lubell shizz 'no we can find some people who identify as pol shox insa Walsh ISNA and podlasie we can find dispersed communities of Polish Tatars and star offers as well as settlement of Lithuanian and Belarusian minorities you topic northern polls groups intermediate between greater polls and masses but closer to greater polls are chiminea see and Dabra zinnia see who live in the lands of Chelmno and DA brezin as well as Louisville we SE in the land of love wa another intermediate group but closer two masses are Catholic warm yaks in the East Prussian region of warmia from the early Middle Ages onwards Pomerania was under strong polish especially greater polish in quia vien influences from the mixture of cashew bein and greater pols emerged an ethnographic group called Borrelia see two whole ski who live in the tahula forest region between tahula Coronel Sui C and Starro guard Borrelia CR intermediary whereas another mixed group cranio C have a mostly greater polish character with relatively minor kashubian influences they live in the region of China to other ethnographic group in northern Poland our Palace Lanie whose homelands are the areas around SZ Tom Qin and malbork and Kosh nijah Zulu a wiz lain in north Poland used to be the homeland of Mennonites who are considered to be either Dutch German or a group on their own topic Pomeranians early medieval Pomeranians used to inhabit the entire land located to the north of Poland between knotek and the Baltic Sea in the West Pomeranians extended perhaps up to use them in the east they extended as far as the Vistula Lagoon and their Eastern neighbours were Baltic speaking Prussians Krynica Morse Co was the eastern most Slavic speaking village on the Baltic coast but the area of true so today L black to the south was ethnically Old Prussian most of Pomeranians became germanized throughout history only Eastern Pomeranians preserved their Slavic ethnicity and are commonly known as kashubian today kashubian who were under polish rule during the 16th 18th centuries remained Roman Catholic while those who lived in brandenburg-prussia in the 1700s became Lutheran's following the Protestant Reformation kashubian can be divided into many subdivisions such as the slow vengeance from the early Middle Ages onwards Pomerania was under strong polish especially greater polish and quia vien influences which led to the emergence of several intermediary ethnographic groups descended mainly from greater polish and quia vien settlers who mixed with kashubian are cashew you see in the region of cashew e located between star Agard pomorskie TC ze w nu Sui C and up to the outskirts of Gdansk in the north the main city in eastern Pomerania has always been Gdansk located on the border between three regions kasuba to the west cashew e to the south prussia to the east topic Silesians in the early Middle Ages so Lisa was inhabited by several legit ik tribes known from written sources under their latinized names the most significant tribe which ultimately gave its name to the region where the slean's ain cleanse ins slurs a knee who lived in areas near modern wrote swath and along the slur River as well as near mounts Lisa the Oh Polly me opal and Zeppelin II lived in lands near modern opal the dado Dasani or detta sized die Addison's gia dushanyi lived in areas near modern Glogau the goal ncz goal incisions golus dwelled near modern rasa burs susan in opava the loopy glug-glug just probably lived on the gloves plateau near glub giuse the trebling tribe Oh viens Tirzah Bhawani mentioned by the prog document which describes the situation as of year 973 or earlier occupied areas near modern leg meat saw the po-boy rainbow brands Bob rosanna mentioned by the same document lived along the lower and middle course of the bobber River the seijins Swain piezo eme lived near Zhou to the east of the opal ins and to the west of Cracow along the borderland between Lower Silesia and lusatia lived tribes related to modern sorbs at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries CE AD 1000 the total population of Silesia is estimated as around 250,000 people by the second half of the 12th century CE AD 1150 to 1200 the population increased to three hundred thirty thousand still in vast majority Slavic speakers following the German Asti lung C ad 1350 to 1430 can one-third German according to estimates by kah-kit Karel Malik schinsky and Tomas Camus Sela while Upper Silesia remained eighty percent ethnically Polish with the remaining twenty percent split mainly between Germans and checks during the following centuries cultural Germanisation gradually shifted the ethnic structure of Silesia so that by the 20th century nearly all of Lower Silesia had a german-speaking majority but Upper Silesia remained majority Polish speaking there have also been Moravian and Czech communities Polish Silesians can be divided into many smaller groups such as Susan Vlachs Latins Silesian girls Oh Poland's and others the oldest polish town in the u.s. Panna Maria Texas was established by Silesians in 1854 they speak the Texas Silesian dialect of Polish topic eastern Cressy pulls from the former eastern territories of Poland and other areas of the polish-lithuanian Commonwealth from the 14th century onwards the expansion of Polish mostly Mazza from masovia but also greater polish and other settlers towards the northeast as well as pollenization of local inhabitants led to the emergence of will new key northeast Creusot via see in the Grodno region and Vilno region will Lynch ISNA which encompasses the borderlands of northern Belarus southern Lithuania and southern Latvia former and flinty voivodeship including dine bergen i lux day at the same time the expansion of polish settlers mostly lesser poles and masses towards the southeast as well as pollenization of local inhabitants led to the emergence of southeast Creusot via sea and halasana red Ruthenia with its main city Lvov Volhynia and Podolia topic national minorities traditional national and ethnic minorities within the modern borders of Poland include the Germans Jews Ukrainians Belarusians lithuanian x' checks including pollen eyes descendants of the bohemian brethren refugees Slovaks Romani people Dutch people all most of whom were pollen eyes Armenians there were at least four waves of Armenian immigration to Poland the earliest of which took place in the 11th century vlachs romance-speaking shepherds and Scots most of Scots in Poland have been pollen eyes Dazz well historically there were also smaller communities of hungarians Russians Walloons French Italians and others today Polish Germans reside mainly in Silesia where they first came during the late Middle Ages prior to world war ii around 1/3 of Poland's population was composed of ethnic minorities following the war however Poland's minorities were mostly gone due to the 1945 revision of borders and the Holocaust most notably the population of Jews in Poland which formed the second largest after the USSR Jewish community in pre-war Europe at about 3 million people was almost completely annihilated by 1945 equals equals see also

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