Quantum Numbers, Atomic Orbitals, and Electron Configurations


professor Dave here, let’s learn about
quantum numbers now that we understand that electrons are both
particles and waves we are ready to learn about how electrons are arranged in an atom. the
location and energy of every electron in an atom is determined by a set of 4
quantum numbers that describe different atomic orbitals. an orbital is a region
of probability where an electron can be found. there are s, d, p, and f orbitals with
different shapes and they look like this remember these shapes are not electrons,
just regions in space where electrons can be and each one can hold up to two
electrons. the more electrons an atom has the more of these orbitals it will
need to accommodate them all. the first quantum number is the principal quantum
number n, which can have any positive integer value. we saw this when we
learned about the Bohr model, it represents the energy level of the
electron. each orbital will have an n value and the larger the value of n the
further away from the nucleus it is. the next quantum number is the angular
momentum quantum number l, this can have any value from 0 to n minus one. for
example if an electron has an n value of three it can have an L value of
either zero, one, or two because two is 3-1. the L value describes the shape of
the orbital. when l equal 0 we are describing s orbitals which are
spherical, just one of these per energy level. when l equals one we are
describing P orbitals which are lobes that extend outwards on three axes. there
are three of these per energy level. when l=2 we are describing d
orbitals which are weird looking, five of these per energy level. and when l equals
three we get f orbitals, which are even weirder looking, 7 per energy level. next
we have the magnetic quantum number m sub l. this could have a value of
anywhere from negative L to L so if L is 2 m sub l can be -2, -1
1, 0, 1 or 2. this quantum number determines how many orbitals there are of a type
per energy level and therefore describes a specific
orbital amongst a particular set. when l is zero m sub l must also be 0 and
that’s why there’s only one s orbital per energy level. when l is one m sub l can
have three values which is why there are three P orbital energy level. an L value
of two gives us five values for m sub l and five d orbitals, and an L value of
three gives us the seven f orbitals the last quantum number is an easy one,
it’s the spin quantum number m sub s. this one will be either one half or
negative one-half no matter what. so every electron in an atom has a unique
set of quantum numbers, no two electrons in an atom can have precisely the same
four quantum numbers as stated by the Pauli exclusion principle. this is
because any orbital can only hold up to two electrons and even the two electrons
in the same exact orbital will have opposite spin values. so let’s try to
describe different sets of quantum numbers and what they mean. when n equals
1, l must be zero and m sub l must also be 0, that means we are describing
the 1s orbital. it can accommodate two electrons which will have spins of half
and negative one-half respectively this is the lowest energy orbital so any
atom on the periodic table will fill this orbital first. the electrons in
hydrogen and helium occupy this orbital since they have only one and two
electrons respectively. when n=2 l can be zero which would give us the
2s orbital or l can be 1 meaning m sub l could be -1, 0 or 1 giving
us the 2p orbitals. the outermost electrons in the second row of the
periodic table will occupy these orbitals when n equals 3, l could be zero, giving us the 3s
orbital, l can be a giving us the 3p orbitals or l can be 2, giving us the
3d orbitals. a large atom will have to use all of these orbitals and more to
house all of its electrons. the Aufbau principle tells us the order in
which an atom will fill up its orbitals this is determined by their relative
energies. orbitals that are further away from the nucleus have higher potential
energy so it’ll be 1s first, then 2s then 2p, 3s, 3p and so forth.
we can use this to determine the electron configuration of any atom. for
example a neutral chlorine atom has 17 electrons. looking at the orbitals, each
of which can hold two electrons, let’s fill them up starting at the lowest
energy and then climb upwards. the 1s orbital gets two electrons, one spin up
the other spin down, then the 2s then the 2p’s, then the 3s and the last
five will go in these 3p orbitals Hund’s rule says that for electrons of the
same energy you put one electron in each orbital first before doubling them up, so
one two three four and five gives us a total of 17 electrons for chlorine. that
means chlorine has an electron configuration of one 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5. the numbers before the letters are the n value for the orbital, the
numbers after the letters tell you how many electrons sit in each type of
orbital if you want a quicker way to determine
electron configurations just know which areas of the periodic table correspond
to which types of orbitals. this area is called the s block this is the p block
here’s the d block and then the f block when we are determining the electron
configuration for an atom of a given element the easiest way to do it is just
travel left to right and up to down on the table until you get to the element,
since each element has one more electrons in the last. looking at
chlorine again the top row is just the 1s orbital, that’s full so 1s2. going to the second row where n equals two we fill the 2s orbital
which holds two electrons, hence two elements, the 2p orbitals which hold
six so we pass six elements, then the next row down we fill the 3s
orbital and lastly we get to the 3p’s and count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 3p5. a common
abbreviation is to use the noble gas from the row above and list it in
brackets. this would be read as neon core and it implies the ground state electron
configuration of neon. then you just list the valence electrons of the element or
the ones that correspond to the row it is in. we can use orbital diagrams to
visually depict how the orbitals are filled and they look like this. don’t
forget Hund’s rule. fill each set halfway before doubling up. for a quick
definition, atoms with unpaired electrons in their orbital diagrams are called
paramagnetic and are attracted by a magnetic field. atoms with all of their
electrons paired are diamagnetic and are not affected by a magnetic field. so to
summarize, n tells us the energy level L tells us what type of orbital, m sub l
tells us which specific orbital amongst a set, and m sub s tells us the spin.
each electron in an atom has a unique set of quantum numbers and an atom will
fill up orbitals with electrons according to the Aufbau principle
until all of its electrons have a place to stay this is a tricky concept, if you feel
confused try watching one more time from the top, otherwise let’s check
comprehension thanks for watching guys subscribe to my
channel for more tutorials and as always feel free to email me

100 thoughts on “Quantum Numbers, Atomic Orbitals, and Electron Configurations

  1. This stuff is easy. I've learnt it hundreds of times!
    And I'll have forgotten it again by tomorrow.

  2. Hey Prof! What's the orbital type (l) and other quantum numbers of hybrid orbitals like sp3? Hybrid orbitals should be described with that pattern too , since they are atomic orbitals, or not?

  3. Hey i have a question.. well the last 5 chlorine's electron… In that two of them have same quantum spin (down) and so are all quantum number so isn't that against Pauli exclusion … .sorry i am noob..

  4. cheers jesus im trying to learn quantum mechanics and im all over here like wutt da foooook is going on

  5. Itโ€™s pronounced Hoond not Hand
    I live in Germany ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช

  6. The helium in your periodic table is in alkaline earth metals instead of Noble gases๐Ÿ˜‡๐Ÿ˜‡

  7. Brilliant Sir…Thanks for this video….this helps me a lot…… ๐Ÿ˜€๐Ÿ˜€

  8. Still i dint understood…
    I think I don't known still basics๐Ÿ˜ข
    But I know they are weird๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜‚….

  9. sounds like everyone here is for chemistry while im here studying intro quantum physics with no chem knowledge at all lmao

  10. I watched this now for the 3rd time, ans its getting to sink in… slowly.. Thank you!!!!!

  11. I feel like he is explaining it in a good way but I still cannot understand it. I wish I had someone to explain it.

  12. Omg explanation !๐Ÿ˜จ๐Ÿ˜จ๐Ÿ˜จ๐Ÿ˜จ๐Ÿ˜จ๐Ÿ˜จ

  13. Can anyone answer this
    Whose last electron hasbthe following quantum number n=5, l=4, m=-2, s=-1/2?

  14. You missed the l = 0 in the next 3 sets after the first one you corrected

  15. I'm in physical chem 3 right now and I forgot all this stuff. Thanks dude you saved me.

  16. Professor Dave is just awsome. He has the capability of making the basics of 'Atomic Structure' strong for those who fear this subject…. Thanks Professor!!! ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘

  17. When his videos come up in your recommended, but you already passed your test because of him…

  18. lectures be taking 2 weeks to explain this….but jesus took 8 minutes and 41 seconds

  19. why cant the angular momentum quantum number be EQUIVALENT to the energy level number

  20. Thanks for explanation, like chemistry somhow, kind regards

  21. Hmmm I have a problem with your comprehension.You said that if l=(n-1) ,but for your given value of n ie 3,l is supposed to be n-1 that is 2 and not 1 ..Tanx

  22. Sir I have a doubt that when n=0 then l= 0 know sir like this only when n= 1 then l = 0, 1 both we can use or only one sir

  23. thanks so much man. 10th grader taking college chem and rlly stressed out. helped a lot w this video.

  24. Iโ€™m reviewing before our classes for 1st yr medschool starts. Youโ€™re a big help to me. Thank you

  25. I like the format and the pacing. As someone who suffers from ADD and can't focus when information is presented slowly, this is how I want information presented – as long as I've got pause and rewind functions.

  26. shorter wavelengths are more "energetic" in single Photons , & outer
    electron shells BUT radio frequency electromagnetic wave "energy" is
    not directly related to or associated with wavelength & ONLY
    depends on field intensity & saying otherwise empowers woo
    peddlers

  27. If n=3 ,l=1 and s=1/2,then how many electrons an atom can accomodate..any one know tge ans plz explain it with the help of electronic configuration as Im extremely dumb in quantum nos

  28. u r a god jesus. A hindu kid is enlightened from this jesus loking man. <3

  29. Thnx Dave I finally understood this concept well
    All thnx to ya ๐Ÿ˜„

  30. โคlike if you too were struggling to understand this concept nd finally understood this in just 9mins
    All thnx to Dave…

  31. Everything has been proof wrong in the chemistry,maybe these โ˜๏ธ will also prove wrong by someone.
    I am bored of such things,๐Ÿ˜•๐Ÿ˜ข

  32. 0:18 4 Quantum Numbers
    S, P, D, F Orbitals
    (L = 0) = S Orbitals
    (L = 1) = P Oribtals
    (L = 2)= D Orbitals
    (L = 3)= F Orbitals

  33. Wait a sec… what do you mean when you say that each orbital can only hold 2 electrons – I don't get it

  34. i was like stuck for two weeks of class now i finally got it through an 8 minute video???? luv ya

  35. My lecturer took 1week to tell this..But I didn't understand..You told it within 10 min , but I completely understand

  36. Very good lecture sir. You're the only person said me clearly about quantum numbers. Can you please make a video on the Aufbau,Hund and other

  37. for the comprehensive piece. If N=3 then shouldn't L=(3-1)=2? why is it 1 for you and not highlighted red?

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