The Epic of Gilgamesh: Crash Course World Mythology #26


Hi, I’m Mike Rugnetta this is Crashcourse
Mythology and today we’re returning to one of the world’s favorite texts, The Epic
of Gilgamesh! This is one of the oldest written stories
in the world. And it’s a great illustration of Joseph Campbell’s monomythic hero’s
journey introduced last episode. Plus it has sacred trees, lovestruck goddesses, and a
fearsome demon named Humbaba. To Sumeria! INTRO
The Epic of Gilgamesh is more than four thousand years old. Written versions of the story date
back to 2100 BCE, which gives it incredible historical value. For instance, several versions
of the Gilgamesh story use both Sumerian and Akkadian names for gods, which shows -how
the story might have passed orally between the cultures of ancient Mesopotamia. This
could also be considered syncretism – when two religious traditions combine over time.
In this episode, we’re gonna work from a version of the epic written around 1200 BCE,
and see how Gilgamesh himself fits into the hero’s journey. A fair bit of warning though:
in this story, there is a brief mention of rape.
At the start of our tale, Gilgamesh is the king of Uruk, and he’s both a bad guy and
a bad king. His subjects are unhappy, he disrespects the gods, and he’s a serial rapist. So,
basically he’s the opposite of a hero. But Gilgamesh, like many “heroes” has
divine parentage – a goddess mom and human king dad. Somehow this makes him two-thirds
god and one-third man? Try not to think too hard about the math on that one. But either
way he’s still mortal, and that’s hard for him to accept.
Eventually, Gilgamesh has a number of crazy adventures. He chops down some famous trees,
and meets his best friend Enkidu, who helps Gilgamesh become a better man and a better
king. When Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh goes to the underworld to try to bring him back. He
fails, however, and then must admit that he’s human after all. In the end, Gilgamesh i s
considered a hero not just for his incredible deeds, but for coming to understand and accept
his true nature. But ok, let’s backtrack. Because along the
way, Gilgamesh manages to check off nearly every single heroic scene that we learned
about in the last episode. We’re gonna count ‘em up, one by one. Play along from home!
Every time you see a heroic scene, shout it out. But ugh, I’m pretty far away, so just
make sure that you shout, like, really… REALLY loudly.
So! Things get started in the Epic when Gilgamesh and Enkidu first meet. Right away they decide
to wrestle each other, and realizing that they’re evenly matched, they reach a stalemate.
This is a heroic trope in its own right (just not one of Campbell’s); think Robin Hood
and Little John, Arthur and Lancelot, or Vin Diesel and
Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson in Fast Five. After dusting themselves off and becoming
bffs, Gilgamesh and Enkidu return to Uruk to do kingly stuff. But Enkidu–who’s used
to living in the wilderness–he gets bored. Gilgamesh proposes they head to the forest
and face off against a terrifying demon adversary: Humbaba. Yeah, it’s just, it’s not a very
threatening name, I know. But trust me, he’s a big deal, very terrifying. But did you see
what happened? This is what Campbell would call the Announcement of the Quest (1).
To prep for the journey, Gilgamesh and Enkidu get Supernatural Aid (2) in the form of some
special weaponry. Then they have a quick Refusal of the Quest (3) as Enkidu, who knows the
power of Humbaba, tries to warn Gilgamesh: “Humbaba, whose shout is the flood weapon,
whose utterance is Fire and whose breath is Death, can hear for a distance of sixty leagues
through the forest, so who can penetrate his forest? Debility would seize anyone who penetrated
his forest.” But Gilgamesh persists. Gilgamesh and Enkidu
meet the Goddess (4), Gilgamesh’s mom Ninsun. She’s not particularly happy with her son’s
plan, but she blesses Gilgamesh and adopts Enkidu. In the forest Enkidu warns Gilgamesh
about its gates saying how afraid he is to Cross the Threshold (5). But once again, Gilgamesh
persists, and the two venture forth into the darkness of the forest…now deep in the Belly
of the Whale (6). And we’re going to follow them right in.
Thoughtbubble, take us in there. Creeping through the pine forest, Enkidu and Gilgamesh
prepare to confront Humbaba. Before long, the earth shakes and the sky goes dark. Humbaba
is upon them! Humbaba is massive, with the face of a lion, or scales, or vulture feet,
or a snake tail – depending on which version you read…but, nonetheless, very fearsome!
Undeterred, Gilgamesh and Enkidu leap into battle. With Supernatural Aid (7) from the
god Shamash, and some divine winds that bind Humbaba, Gilgamesh slays the demon and removes
its head. If you’re keeping score at home, this step
is technically “Atonement with the Father (8)”. Humbaba can be read as a terrible,
overbearing Father figure that must be, well, not so much atoned with as, you know, beheaded.
After the glorious battle, Gilgamesh and Enkidu fell a bunch of sacred trees, build a raft,
and sail home with Humbaba’s noggin. Once home, Gilgamesh takes a bath and puts on some
royal robes in anticipation of his Meeting with a Goddess (9). In this case, the goddess
is Ishtar, who definitely has a thing for Gilgamesh. She says: “Come to me Gilgamesh
and be my lover! Bestow upon me the gift of your fruit! You can be my husband, and I can
be your wife.” Gilgamesh refuses Ishtar’s advances, though
– maybe he just wasn’t ready to share his fruit – which makes this scene Woman
as Temptress (10). Insulted, Ishtar sends the Bull of Heaven to kill Gilgamesh, who
with Enkidu, kills the bull. But Enkidu, who just does not know when to quit, slaps Ishtar
with a chunk of said bull. Not. Smart. Friendo. And with that beefy slap, Enkidu seals his
fate. The life drains from his body, he gets sicker and sicker and … dies.
Thank you Thoughtbubble. With Enkidu dead, Gilgamesh is at a turning point. He thought
he’d finished his hero’s journey! After travelling to the ends of the earth, defeating
his “dad”, and returning home with a gross bloody trophy… HE PUT ON ROBES! He was DONE!
But now, with the loss of his best friend, Gilgamesh feels yet another call to adventure.
So, he leaves Uruk to roam the country, wondering: “Shall I die too? Am I not like Enkidu?
Grief has entered my innermost being. I am afraid of Death and so I roam open country.”
Gilgamesh is on another heroic quest, this time to overcome death and live eternally.
He resolves to find Utnapishtim, who you might remember from a previous episode – he’s
the dude who was granted immortality after surviving the great flood. Along the way,
Gilgamesh crosses the mountains that guard the rising and setting sun and confronts monstrous
Scorpion men. Crossing the mountains means another Crossing
the Threshold (11) and crossing this threshold means Gilgamesh is in the Belly of yet another
Whale, walking through ten leagues of darkness. Eventually, stumbling through the dark, Gilgamesh
has another Meeting with the Goddess. This time it’s Siduri, the goddess of beer and
wisdom, two things that don’t often go together. Siduri tells Gilgamesh that to meet Utnapishtim,
Gilgamesh must cross lethal waters with the boatman Ur-shanabi. Gilgamesh thanks Siduri
for the beer, sets off, and finds Ur-shanabi. Immediately, Gilgamesh bashes Ur-shanabi over
the head. Which just, that seems very, very rude – I mean, why would Gilgamesh treat
Ur-shanabi so Ur-shabbily? [beat] Anyways, I suppose maybe clobbering is the only way
that Gilgamesh know how to communicate with people who aren’t goddesses.
In addition to bashing Ur-shanabi over the head, Gilgamesh smashes all of the “things
of stone.” Which is unfortunate because it turns out that those “things of stone”
are the tools Ur-shanabi needs to cross the water. So Gilgamesh has yet another task – he
must cut down trees to make punting poles. Finally, Ur-shanabi shows Gilgamesh how to
use the poles to cross the lethal waters and reach Utnapishtim. But when he does Gilgamesh
can’t exactly celebrate. Utnapishtim challenges him. He asks:
“Why have you exerted yourself? What have you achieved?
You have made yourself weary for lack of sleep, You only fill your flesh with grief,
You only bring the distant days of reckoning closer.
Mankind’s fame is cut down like reeds in a reed-bed
Nobody sees the face of Death Nobody hears the voice of Death.
Savage Death just cuts mankind down.” This isn’t…exactly… the the answer Gilgamesh
was hoping for. Is Utnapishtim going to turn him away? Is he doomed to remain mortal? Gilgamesh
persists, so Utnapishtim tells him his own story – about the flood, being chosen by
Ea, the gods granting him immortality. And this is a revelation to Gilgamesh, the truth
of immortality, and it serves as his Apotheosis (12).
Utnapishtim decides if Gilgamesh really wants to be immortal – fine. But to prove his
worth, he has to complete a Road of Trials (13) with just one, simple task. Gilgamesh
must stay awake for six days and seven nights. No problem, Gilgamesh says. Easy, he snorts.
He plops down on a rock and–having walked in the darkness for over ten leagues–instantly
falls asleep. Whoops! Even though Gilgamesh failed his test, Utnapishtim
gives him an out. If he really wants to avoid death there’s a secret plant, a root like
a camel-thorn. If he can track it down, it’ll bring him great rejuvenation. This will be
his Ultimate Boon (14). So does Gilgamesh get his magic plant? Yes
and no. He manages to find it growing deep underwater, and by tying stones to his feet,
manages to sink down, snip a sample, and float back up to the surface. After this, he sets
off for his Great Return (15) to civilization. But. After all that. On his way home, Boon
in hand…Gilgamesh decides that he should stop and take a bath. While he’s soaking,
a snake slithers up, sneaks behind him, curls around the plant and disappears. As he towels
himself off, he sees the plant is gone and is just… defeated. He sits down and weeps.
Gilgamesh must return home empty handed. So – what is heroism? Gilgamesh is a mighty
warrior who stands up to terrible monsters and discovers the secret of immortality, but
who ultimately fails in his quest. Over the course of the story he has almost all the
experiences set forth in Campbell’s monomyth, sometimes more than once. But is this what
makes him a hero? Really, Gilgamesh is kind of an ambivalent
figure. His journey has many successes, but also many failures. His bravery – or lack
of respect – allows him to challenge and kill Humbaba, but also gets Enkidu killed.
He proudly announces that he’s up to Utnapishtim’s challenge, but he simply isn’t. At the end
of the epic, Gilgamesh comes to terms with his limitations as a human. This completes
the journey, achieving the final, crucial step – having the power and wisdom to live
a good life. Not an eternal life, but a good one. In Gilgamesh’s case, that means one
where you aren’t a terrible king. Eva Thury and Margaret Devinney sum up Gilgamesh’s
heroism pretty well: “Gilgamesh wants to escape human limitations,
to get answers to questions not available to his contemporaries, and perhaps most importantly,
he wants to overcome mortality both for himself and others. But ultimately his story shows
us that, despite his extraordinary talents, in these matters he is not different from
other humans. Thus, we see that it is precisely his human limitations that make him truly
heroic.” So, is he perfect? No. Is he even a role model?
Definitely not. But can he serve as a symbol for an aspect of the human condition, of growing
past mistakes and accepting limitations? Maybe. And perhaps THAT is what makes him a “hero”.
Next week we’ll see just how many heroes might be lurking where you’re not expecting
them. Oh! And also, we’re gonna talk about an army of flying monkeys that I may or may
not call “my pretties”. Thanks for watching. We’ll see you soon!

100 thoughts on “The Epic of Gilgamesh: Crash Course World Mythology #26

  1. Gilgamesh Immortal wild born wore lion skins
    till tamed by the priestess Ishtar
    Great Sage and Warrior defeated mortality
    the unceasing tyranny of Time

    Invincible Conqueror he first captured Uruk
    then even to Lebanon on the Middle Sea shore
    Sumer's great gods he brought and smashed idols
    his glories are carved in permanent rock

    Gilgamesh Emperor refused his mortality
    challenged this affronting curtailment of power
    He curses the gods who gave mankind death
    and kept immortality themselves

    He desecrates the temples dismantles the altars
    discredits the ancient beliefs
    Then Gilgamesh wanders again wearing lion skins
    searching for everlasting life

    But he cannot claim one hundred years
    or even five days in this world
    till Sleep gently takes to her restful abode
    the great warrior docile and blind

    Eternity is found in the cavernous dark
    excess time too great to endure
    Is this then my fate or will I cease to be
    Gilgamesh resolves to inquire

    The answer he learns as sailors well know
    lies on the deep ocean floor
    But that bitter truth encased in sharp spines
    has never been brought back to shore

    Undaunted the sage who searched beyond heaven
    for the secret to undying youth
    ties rocks to his feet descends through the deep
    poised at the threshold of death

    Gilgamesh plucks and swallows the fruit
    too thorny for mortals to hold
    Then returning to Uruk reigned fifty more years
    devoted and caring for all

    Ninety-nine years was his time on this earth
    after ninety-nine years and nine days
    maggots appeared a great stench arose
    his corpse was consigned to the flames

    His funeral remembered for eighty four years
    was portrayed in gold and bright stones
    The shrine was revered for five hundred more
    then plundered and levelled by foe

    But Gilgamesh Immortal has no need of monuments
    from clay to papyrus he strides
    From parchment to print and digital media
    technologies yet to arrive

    Ripples arise in the seething entropy
    multitudes exist and subside
    Five thousand years and all that has passed
    Gilgamesh alone survives.

  2. What about the flood and the boat and the animals?

  3. Gilgamesh the demi-god offspring of the Nephilim – That is why the carvings depict him as a giant, because he was a giant, spoken of in the Book of Enoch. Gilgamesh is half Fallen Angel – This is why he sought immortality. This is also why, Gilgamesh is so arrogant and fool hearted. Utnapishtim is a survivor of Noah's flood. He is a Fallen Angel and speaks of the impending end to the Fallen Ones and their offspring(Gilgamesh).

  4. Fun fact: this myth is the source for the making of the biblical version of the Great Flood story.

    (Edits) WAIT!!! Did he just mentioned the part the about Gilgamesh in the belly of the Whale?!?! That's similar to the biblical story of Jonah and the Whale!!!

  5. Sounds like thresholds were gateways and the forest is a plane of reality that we cannot perceive…

  6. I just found your channel . Awesome!!! Thanks and congratulations

  7. GODD!! THIS IS THE WORST TELLING OF ANY ANCIENT EPIC I HAVE EVER HEARD DAMN THESE WHITES REALLY SPOIL EVERYTHING DAT THEY DO ISNT IT !! :-/

  8. The Shining ones are those who came down from the Lowest Heaven and Set out upon Mount Hermon to fulfill the pact they made among each other.

  9. Who wants to live forever? The world is already a lost cause. The elites are implementing mind control through the media, we get our food and water come from these same elites and they put harmful chemicals in them(including bottled water,and anything with water as an ingredient).Fluoride is in almost everything now. This stuff is responsible for nervous system problems,hair loss/thinning,depression,ADHD and inhibits your ability to learn and retain memories.(Sucks if you drink a lot of bottled water and you think you are healthy…Think again)

    They are also coming out with a technology that "thinks for you".They are obviously shaving away free will and reliance on your own memory through the food and water you put into your system.They will use these machines to remember for you or make decisions for you.This will allow them to manipulate anyone they want,making them appear as gods although they are just weak minded men.

    The world is a lost cause…Give your life to Christ and be blameless…

  10. The goddess of beer and wisdom,I wonder how she got that name

  11. Considering how back then people used to live up to their 20's, I guess that story was famous because it addresses youths' impatience and also chauvinist men? That' must have been big without law or rights.

  12. Nimrod in Hebrew means " rebel ".
    Nimrod is the birth of paganism.
    Research paganism and you will big similarities between it and The Epic of Gilgamesh.

    "2018-04-07 · Nimrod and Gilgamesh are Warrior figures from two different but closely related cultures, but don’t appear to be mentioned together. Nimrod is the son of Cush, grandson of Noah, and is credited in legend with commencing the building of the Tower of Babel—that according to Wikipedia."

    "2013-05-09 · The 'sons of god' forcibly took men's wives. The Epic says that is precisely what Gilgamesh did. The Bible calls Nimrod a tyrant, and Gilgamesh was a tyrant. There was a Flood in the Bible, there is a flood in the Epic. Cush is mentioned in the Bible, Kish in the Epic. Erech is mentioned in Scripture, Uruk was Gilgamesh's city.""

    "BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Gilgamesh tomb believed found
    news bbc co uk/2/hi/science/nature/2982891.stm
    2003-04-29 · Gilgamesh tomb believed found Archaeologists in Iraq believe they may have found the lost tomb of King Gilgamesh – the subject of the oldest "book" in history. Gilgamesh was believed to be two-thirds god, one-third human"

  13. i heard enkidu is a wild man. a big foot. with red fur all over his body

  14. Gilgamesh loved Enkidu in more ways than you let us know 😉
    Also you skipped the best part, where he cries for seven days and nights over Enkidu's death, his grief beeing so powerfull, the whole of Uruk is thrown into darkness and it's citizens hearts are overcome with sadness.

  15. 4:44 that's actually kind of false considering Gilgamesh folded faster than a purse snatcher running into Batman enkidu had to convince Gilgamesh to even get in the fight to begin with

  16. If you tired why sit down? Why take the random bath? Why be a rapist? Does he have half a brain?

  17. Walking 10 Days in Darkness = Belly of the Whale; It seems that anything can be a Symbol of anything else.

  18. We do not know if it was a myth, many things happened and a lot of things that seem weird are actually true.

  19. Too bad they didn't have Harley Davidsons in 2100 BC. Gilgamesh and his sidekick could have started the first biker gang with Gil played by Fonda and Dennis Hooper playing the side kick. And Catherine Zeta Jones or Zoe Deschanel playing Ishtar. Can't wait to get my time machine. And to get solid with either Catherine or Zoe. I'm not being sarcastic. It's just my way of telling you that I really appreciated your story of Gil and the gang. I had heard the name Gilgamesh before but had no idea of who he was or what he did. Please keep up the good work for us, the biker riffraff who are ignorant of mythology but who can fix any motorcycle broken down on a rainy night on the interstate.🤗

  20. Gilgamesh and Enkidu are tottering around in toe shoes through this whole production. What is that all about?

  21. A fairy tale explained. Which changes no matter who tells it. It's what the Bible has given us, in it's perfection.

  22. They took this story and turned it into Noah and the Ark fable.

  23. “Beer and wisdom don’t often go together.”

    ahem “I drink and I know things.”

  24. Love this video! It’s a life saver for my world literature subject.:) Thanks

  25. Long ago they would only put items of interest in stone, not myths.

  26. why cant he just go back underwater to sip off another sample to bring back? hmmmm?

  27. How the hell people relate real history with Gilgamesh I have no idea.

  28. Is ishtar a succubus?
    Is Gilgamesh connected to King Nimrod from the Bible?

  29. I've seen this story summarized way better in about the same amount of time. Not saying the video is awful, it just glosses over a ton of significant details (seemingly in service of fitting everything into the context of the hero's journey).

  30. Gilgamesh means…
    Gil means cloth
    Gamesh means Oxe
    Oxe's cloth
    Thats Kurdish language and History. Fact

  31. You forgot to explain his Gate of Babylon and his ultimate weapon, Ea

  32. Like the concept, good to have a mythology channel. Could you add a bit more depth to your narration though? I may be wrong, but it feels like you're mocking the story a bit rather than narrating the tale.

  33. Wow, a very cherry picked version with some extreme interpretation by the speaker.
    Seriously, if you do not know the original (3000 BC) or the docudrama (1200 BC) then do so, it is a tremendous story, not at all like the pap this man is spewing.

  34. Why does this sound like a Hercules story?

  35. of course he was a Brother …that's where the God complex arises from,,,

  36. "What's all about Gilgamesh"
    "is it just for the moment we live"
    "What's it all about"
    "When we sort it out Gilgamesh"
    "are we meant to take more then we give"

  37. Nearly 5000 years back an epic is written which is more intellectual, philosophical than the more modern childish stories of the Bible, Quran etc. !!

  38. This story bored me in high school English 2 and still bores me.

  39. Dude accepts woman's advances: he's a pig.
    Dude rejects woman's advances: he's making her out to be a temptress.
    Dudes just can't win.

  40. Although i dont care much for golf, i correlated this story to that of Tiger woods when he won the masters earlier this year. Hence i agree with the sentiment that this has to be the greatest tale known to man.

  41. Who came here and did a research after y’all saw how op he was in the fate anime🤘🏼😂😂😂

  42. Ya wo kamae yo, ore ga yurusu.
    Shikouzai uruk no mamori wo miseru ga ii!
    Melamu Dingir!

  43. Shows like this restore my love for humanity. You are going. toward the light.

  44. No, no, no, you’ve got it all wrong. Gilgamesh is blonde guys, c’mon.

  45. Tell the story about La Galigo, the creation myth from Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is also an epic, the largest one. As large as Gilgamesh and Mahabharata

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