The Scots Language (or Dialect?!)


Hello, everyone. Welcome to the Langfocus channel, and my name is Paul today’s topic is the Scots Language Scots is a language spoken in Scotland; one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. Right off the bat It’s important to point out that there are essentially three different languages in Scotland: Scottish English, Scots, and Gaelic. Gaelic is a Celtic language that is only distantly related to English and Scots as an Indo-European language. Scots and Scottish English on the other hand are closely related to each other, though they’re not the same thing Scottish English is for the most part standard English But spoken with a Scottish accent. Scots, on the other hand is distinct, having diverged from a dialect of Middle English and having features that differ from English. Some people consider Scots to be a separate language While others consider it to be a historical dialect of English just like the historical dialects found in England But we’ll get into that a little bit later. According to the 2011 Scottish census, just over 1.5 million people speak Scots; around 30% of the Scottish population. History The roots of scots lie in Northumbrian Old English; one of several Old English dialects Northumbrian Old English was being spoken by the seventh century in the Anglo-Saxon, Kingdom of Northumbria which was located in Northeastern England and part of the Scottish lowlands. The Kingdom of Scotland was founded in the year 843 with the unification of the Pictish people and Gaelic speaking Scots, but English-speaking northumbrian lands were not yet part of the kingdom when the northern part of Northumbria finally became part of Scotland in the 11th century, Gaelic became the prestige language of the area, but [English] remained the most widely spoken language the variety of English spoken there may have been Significantly influenced by norse because the southern part of Northumbria along with much of Northern and Eastern England had been under Danish control, and its English dialects had been influenced by Norse, and Scandinavian settlers were also present beyond the border of that area, as well. In the 12th and 13th centuries during the Middle English period, the borough system of administrative division led to the spread of English further to Scotland. Borås were autonomous urban communities where traders merchants and craftsmen could live and do [business] in exchange for paying taxes on their earnings The boroughs were ruled by Nobles who answered to the king they attracted economic migrants from other parts of scotland including Gallic speaking areas from England especially from areas that had been under danish Control where norse influence dialects were spoken and from farther away places like Flanders [freesias] and scandinavia English became the common language of the borough’s but the multilingual environment created by the economic migrants had an influence on the language so as English became more widespread in scotland because of the borough’s it also, began to diverge from Northumbrian middle English other influences were latin because of its role as the ecclesiastical language and the language of laws and record-keeping and [norman-French] because of the influence of King David the first who had close ties with Norman England the Divergent variety of Middle English that grew out of these influences is now referred to as early [scot] But at the time it continued to be referred to as English until the end of the 15th [century] in the 14th and [15th] centuries English replaced garlic in much [of] the Lowlands as well as replacing French as the administrative language as well as replacing latin as the language of records and law Another thing that happened in the 15th century was that the orkney islands and the Shetland Islands came under Scottish rule Scandinavian settlers had been living on these islands since the [ninth] century and spoke a language called [norn] that derived from old norse But Scott speaking settlers began to move there and the prestige language became scots From this contact new dialects of scots would develop with more norse influence than other forms of scots these dialects are Shetland scots and Arcadian scots or orkney By this point scots had become fairly Distinct from English as spoken in England one thing that set them apart was that the Southern English dialect of London was becoming the standard In England whereas scots had more in common with the Northern dialects another thing that set them apart was the great vowel shift the Great vowel shift took place between the years 1350 and 1600 more or less and caused vowels of English to be pronounced differently this also affected scots Although the specific chain were different and some vowels that changed in English remained Unchanged in scots for example in Middle English the letters o you Represented the sound boom in Southern English and thus in Standard English this sound shifted to ow But in scots it remained unchanged so today in standard English you say mouse, but in scots you say moose, no [alumnus] and a brown cow in English is a broom coup in scots who knew [bru] [gu] The great vowel shift took place at about the same time that English orthography was becoming Standardized so that English spelling often reflected earlier Middle English pronunciation and it still does today scots on the other hand was written more freely to reflect the way it was really pronounced an extensive body of scots literature was written in the 15th and 16th centuries But towards the end of that time period As english was growing in prestige Scots was increasingly being written using a combination of scots and English spelling’s when King James six of scotland became the unified Monarch of England and Ireland in 1603 and began to rule from London the influence of English continued to grow with the Scottish upper classes Adapting and Anglo sizing their speech and writing. This is what ultimately led to the development of Scottish Standard English Scots was still widely spoken by the common people [but] with the full union of England and scotland in 1707 it became even more discouraged and frowned upon But the marginalization of scots caused a rebound later that century with the scots literary revival, led by poets such as Allan ramsay Later Robert burns widely considered the National Poet of scotland wrote in a combination of vernacular scots and Scottish English Scots language literature declined once again in the nineteenth century, but experienced revivals again in the 20th century Poet Hugh macdiarmid attempted to create a standard form of literary scots based on a combination of different scots varieties later in the 20th century novels narrated in Scots vernacular began to appear scots a language or a dialect of English Whether scots is a separate language or a dialect can be a difficult question to answer especially [because] these days Many people use both of them in combination with each other today There’s a diglossic Situation in which people in the Scott speaking areas can freely code switch between scots and standard English and combine them together in varying degrees [depending] on the situation So think about that for a second you have scots And then you have standard English which are very closely related to begin with and people slide back and forth between the two of them Stopping anywhere along the continuum that suits the situation in this kind of diglossic situation It’s easy to perceive both varieties as registers of a single [language] to perceive scots as a vernacular form of English But some people still see scots as a language in its own right and they typically point to the body of scots literature from over The centuries which remains divergent from the conventions of [standard] English as it developed. There’s no universal standard for [determining] What’s a language, and what’s a dialect the classic quote is a language is a dialect with an army and a navy well scots Began without an army then it got one then it lost it and maybe it will have one again in the future but the very least we can say is that when scots vernacular is spoken in isolation without Using standard English it is fairly Distinct. So what is scots like well? It’s a lot like English, but the main difference is [in] the way It’s pronounced especially the vowels of course there are many different accents of English But scots has distinct pronunciation of its own and unlike English scots is written and spelled to reflect the sounds of the spoken [language] So when you read scots the differences become more obvious [scots] also uses its own words and Expressions that are not a part of English though some people may pepper their speech with scots words for effect when they’re speaking mainly scottish English let’s look at a few examples of everyday speech in scots the Pronunciation and the spelling depends on the local variety but these examples are from era sure in the Scottish Lowlands Here’s a sentence meaning the children caught some insects in the garden [the] [barrens] caught some beasties in the garden right [away] You’ll probably notice [that] there are some non English spelling’s like some and Garden Which is distinct in? [pronunciation] from Garden the first [vowel] is different and also noticed that the d is pronounced as a glottal stop But it’s often pronounced that way in my [canadian] dialect of English as well We’d normally say garden, not garden when speaking naturally you’ll probably notice a couple of diff words here as well There’s [bairns] instead of children This word is not exclusively scots But is also used in some English dialects of Northern England then we have beasties instead of insects This is an endearing form of the word beast which can be used to refer to small animals or insects Here’s a sentence meaning I went to the shop with my little brother and sister. I went to the shop We may [weave] rather and sister. You’re the first thing to notice is I went this clearly isn’t the definite article off because it’s followed by a verb this is actually the first person singular Personal Pronoun like I in standard English next notice teh meaning [-] this can be pronounced teh on its own but here it’s reduced to sound like [-] just [like] it would normally be reduced in an English sentence like this as In I went to the shop we can hear the full vowel sound in this word way which means with here Ma means my [wie] means little this word is founded standard English in certain fixed phrases like a wee bit or the wee hours of the night But it’s originally a scots word and in scots as well as Scottish English It’s very common notice the spelling of this word breather which means brother obviously [the] difference Here is just a difference in the vowel, and that was very like this in various English dialects as well, but in scots They’re actually spelled differently here in is a reduced form of end the pronunciation of end is often reduced in English, too But it would never be spelled like this except maybe in a comic book or something like that here’s a sentence meaning I can’t go to the party tonight because I’ve got a lot to do I Can you go to the parity tonight because I’ve got a lot today? Again, we see our meaning. I hear [ken] a means can’t or cannot and here’s [teh] again notice the equivalent word for party which is [pear] eat the first vowel sound is different and the t is pronounced like a glottal stop not pair t but Pair e Here notice that tonight is the night in scots? Which I find quite interesting because in some other languages like Hebrew and arabic you say the night or the day [coz] is a contraction of because this is something [that] occurs in various dialects of English including mine But it would only be written like [that] in an informal context of is like I’ve in English and to do is today here’s a sentence meaning I don’t want to go to work today because I haven’t got much energy I Didn t. Want to go to work today because [I] have me got much energy. Here’s [Aa] again I guess I should have used sentences with some different pronouns. [oh] Well, here’s the word for don’t da remember that Kant was Kenny So this ending seems to be the pattern for negative contractions here We have t again and here the word for work is written the way it sounds [I] think [this] is a clear case [of] the great vowel shift causing a difference between the spelling and the sound in English here We see that today is the day similar to the night that we saw before here’s cuz again and here’s another negative Contraction haven’t is his name? All of those examples were everyday modern examples, but let’s look at something a little [more] literary and traditional This is an excerpt from a poem by the Scottish Poet Robert burns Who’s often said to be scotland’s national Poet the poem is called [Tam-O-Shanter]? Which was written in 1790 by [the] way [Tam]? [O’shanter] is also. What we call these Scottish caps these caps are named after the hero and Burns’s poem well here we go when Chaplin bellies leave the Street and [Routinely] [Burrs] [Leber’s] meat as Market days are waiting late and folk begin to tack the gate While we [set] bruising at the nappy getting through an unco happy we think knee and the land [scots] [mail] the mosses water slaps and styles That lie between as an ahem where sits [our] [silkie] [seldom] Gathered in her brows like [gathering] storms nuts in her ass to keep it one In the first line Chapman Billie’s means peddlers or traveling salespeople in the second line ruthie means thirsty Nabors is equivalent to neighbors in the third line. There are no differences But to clarify the meaning wearing late means getting late in the fourth line tack the gate means to take the road home Or I suppose to head home So in lines one to four burns is creating the image of people finishing work and going home in The fifth line boozing means boozing or drinking alcohol Neppy means liquor or ale I guess at is used here in the same way you might say sipping at your drink in The sixth line we have food which comes from the French word foo meaning crazy, so get in foo means getting crazy or getting drunk Uncle means very it comes from the old English word uncouth meaning unknown or unusual So I guess we could say that uncle happy means unusually happy if we [want] to dig into its etymology in The seventh line. We see a different way of forming the negative rather than DNa. Think it’s sink nay I think this is a poetic literary form the same way you might write think not in English rather than don’t think Liang means long and Ascot smile is a unit of measurement like a mile So this sentence says something like we’re not thinking about the long walk home in the eighth line losses means Marshes slaps mean steps [styles] means styles as in steps that lead you over a fence or a wall and in the ninth line hem means home So in line five to nine burns is creating the image of people getting drunk and not thinking about their journey home in the ninth Line we have a different spelling for where and dame means wife Lines 10 and 11 are the same and English and it’s got in the tenth line There’s the phrase gathering her brows I imagine her eyebrows are close together because she’s scowling making an angry face in the eleventh line Nursing her wrath to keep it warm means that she is intentionally keeping herself angry because she’s planning to scold her husband So in lines 10 to 13 burns is creating the image of an angry wife Sitting at home waiting for a confrontation with her husband as soon as he gets home So in that poem we saw a little more of a literary style of scots again It’s very much [like] English, but it has its own unique pronunciation spelling and vocabulary and in the earlier examples We saw some unique word forms and contractions do differences like that makes scots a separate language from English According to a survey conducted by the Scottish government 64% of Scottish people either slightly or strongly agree that wot’s is not a language It’s just a way of speaking and that includes 58% of the people who speak scots most frequently so even some scot speakers Don’t really think of it as a language and that brings me to the question of the day for speakers of scots do you think of scots as a language or as a dialect or register of English and also to what extent do you use scots and For everyone else how similar or different dis cots in English seem to you leave your comments down below? Be sure to follow leng focus on Facebook Twitter and Instagram And as always I would like to say thank you to all of my amazing patreon supporters Especially these magnificent people right here on the screen for their monthly pledges. Thank you for watching and have a nice day

100 thoughts on “The Scots Language (or Dialect?!)

  1. Interesting. As someone from the south coast of England, I’d seen what I now realise was Scots before, but I’d regarded it simply as a way for the writer to get across a Scottish accent in their writing. I had no idea that Scottish people would write like this in normal everyday writing.

  2. i speak northern English (British English) i can understand Scots when its spoken, some words might be different but i do not regard it as a separate language

  3. It’s so not a different language than English. What’s next, broad Yorkshire is not English?

  4. About the poem, the word "na" is used in Scots Gaelic kind of like the word "don't" is used in English. Mainly right before commands and commanding verbs, as in "Na òl" being the equivalent to the English "Don't drink".

  5. To me it appears like the dispute if Swissgerman is a language or a dialect. Usually it's taken as dialect, but since a while and i guess caused by sentimental nstionalistic feelings they like to see the alemannic idiom as own language. But if i compare it to "Mittelhochdeutsch" then there aren't many differences between them neither to "Pladdütsch". So i see it (maybe also caused by the fact that i have german parents) just as a dialect. On the other hand most swiss struggle hard with "Hochdeutsch". Personally i kmow they just don't like to, erm yes those sentimental feelings🙂 No problem for me and because i like my "language" i claim even to speak it better as many swiss. Dialects in Switzerland can differ much (sounds familiar, no?). Where and in the generation i grew up we kept an eye on our dialect and kept or even digged out old terms. However i can't see alemannic as a language of it's own.

    Recently some fear to lose the dialect because of blending, but you know
    't always was like this.

    It's very difficult to draw a frame around it. From which point on it is a own language, German dialects blend from region to region.
    We have one town in the alemannic part of Switzerland which speaks "Bayrisch" but it isn't close to the german border it's closer to Italy and Austria and settled in the Raetoromanic part.

    (i hate typing on the phone)

  6. English is a polycentric language. The Oxford dialect (BBC English) is the prestige dialect in England because of political power, but there's no other reason why it should be. "English" and "Scottish English/Scots" are dialects of each other.

    I have no hesitation in saying that Robert Burns is not only Scotland's national poet, but also one of the greatest of all the poets who have written in English. If you don't know a word he uses, look it up, just as you would with Chaucer or Shakespeare. If you don't understand him, your loss.

    Lallans, however, is an artificial construct, rather like Katharevousa in Greek, which bears no relation to anything anyone has ever spoken. I have no doubt in saying that; because it is the opinion of someone I know, who was best of friends with Maurice Lindsay, one of the major C20 Lallans poets.

  7. I am a German who learned English at school (obviously). Although the spoken Scots or Scottish English is beyond my grasp, in writing it is different. Although only a small part of the Scottish words are shown in this video, I would have a better understanding of at least some of the written Scottish words than their English counterparts if I only spoke German. It means that at least several Scottish words have not moved as far from their Germanic roots than their English counterparts. In German there were vowel shifts as well, and modern German for sure moved from the original Germanic roots as well. Finding similarities as well as differences is quite interesting. Due to the influence of several other languages (Latin, French) in both English and German they moved further away from their common roots. For example English retained the Germanic based word „window“, whereas German adapted the Latin word „fenestra“ which became „Fenster“. Linguistic can be interesting if you get yourself involved. BTW when going to Britain I sometimes used Dutch KLM. Because speaking German and English I could read their Dutch paper without any real difficulty. Though speaking would be a lot more difficult.

  8. 4:33 That's why the letters "ou" sound like "oo" in the word "you". Should we say "yow" (as in cow) instead? Haha.

  9. Getting fou means getting full drunk or getting full I am an ulster scot and have said it yin our twa times

  10. Defenitely it's a variation of english, very minimal pronounciation differences, very much easy to understand. So it can't be considered a different language for sure. But it sounds very nice 🙂

  11. Jesus Christ, Scots is a horrible way to murder English, an already difficult language to write and speak due to the differences in pronunciation and grammar.

  12. Scots is just a chopped up way of speaking English. Kind of what some black communities do here in the US.

  13. scots and english seems to me like italian and french, a common base with some great disimilarities in the words sounds

  14. Unkel onkle brother of father or from mom. Unuk onka uknun is more or less same????

  15. I appreciate the female voice used for the scots bits of the video. There's something about scottish women are their accents that just wind me up.

  16. I'm not a native English speaker and I remember how one day I tried to read Irvine Welsh's "Trainspotting" which turned out to be partially written in Scots. First impression was like "what does that gibberish even mean?!", but after a little time I started to somehow understand it. However, I needed to put much effort to read and understand the parts written in Scots. Long story short – I didn't finish that book.

  17. And you had to be Canadian… such intelligent people Canadians are, they have no match. Colosal master video class. Felicitaciones.

  18. I love the Scot language. Only place I have troubles understanding is in Glasgow. Maybe do a show with the accents in Scotland. Scotland isn't huge,neither is England but the accents are very distinct. I loved living there.

  19. as a scot, I would honestly class the Scots language and a distant dialect of English however, if I were to speak Scots to an English person the might find it very difficult to understand what I was saying. Similar to the germans struggling to understand the Swiss when they speak 'German'.

  20. Great clip! Again! You forgot Doric. This was my father's first language before he learnt English. Doric is spoken in the North East coast from Dundee maybe going up as far across as Elgin. (My father was born in Carnoustie). My mother who lives just south of Aberdeen can't understand all the fuss about "trying to save Gaelic" and put it in to local authority admin as it was never the language spoken in that area. As an anecdote 10% of all Aberdonians speak Polish! By the way the "fou" = drunk is much more likely from the Norse "full" directly meaning drunk.

  21. Then is Canadian- English, American or Australian- English seperat languages?

  22. When scots speek Scots slowly it's like English but when they speak rapidly i'm lost

  23. Don't for Scots Wikipedia! (at least I distinguish Scots and Scotch Gaelic unlike many do in my country).

  24. could this argument also be made for ukranian and russian? because they are very similar right?

  25. Hi guys, im from Ukraine, and Im really like Scots pronunciation! Its kinda diffrent from Engl, and (may I say this way) warmer and friendly to me =)

  26. this is a really good informative video! i'm glad you specified that your examples are from ayrshire though. i live in the moray area and scots and scottish english is spoken very differently up here!

    to answer your question, i trained myself out of speaking scots as a child since i got bullied for it by english kids. i can't personally speak scots but i do understand it, which is… wild to say the least. i do believe it's a language though, and i wish we could speak it freely without the stigma that it's "just a dialect of english" or that it's spoken by unintelligent people (savages, for example) that can't speak english.

  27. I see what you’re saying but Scots works very similar to many accents around Great Britain. Replacing English words with words that are just via slang in that particular area. It’s just a different dialect, accent, it’s not a different language.

  28. I'm English, rarely been to Scotland, but through TV, encounters with some Scots, etc, find I understand most of those every day examples you showed. In fact, I paused the vid and found I could predict what the Scots equivalent to standard English would be. So it seems a way of speaking/dialect to me. That said, I cannae maeke head ni tail of haelf of Burns poesie

  29. i like the forms, think not, can no, … i may attempt to use them in standard english (i'm foreigner so i can do all kinds of shit)

  30. I think it's a Langue, an older English Langue, because they use words that could be used by the older Generation American English, and than words that aren't even close to English., It's a mix of English Nordic, combined like salt and pepper, you see it here and there, but some words are really not close to the meaning, or same as English.

  31. I would say that Scots is a dialect, as it's pretty similar to the Geordie dialect of Newcastle. They both likely developed in a similar way, considering the proximity.

  32. There is a similar situation of diglosdia in Cyprus with cypriot greek and modern greek .

  33. Maus and cou, or cow?.. Haha! Its the same in German:
    Mauss, und kuh.
    I think Scothish is an English dialect, and English is direct derivated from old German, and later mixtured with a lot latin. (May be Scoth incorporates same scandinavian words too)

  34. I come from Hull, Yorkshire, ( once Deira) , England. The common speech in Hull shares much with Scots ( Northumbrian roots shared) . We wd use bairn but without pronouncing the 'r'. We wd not I think use ' wee' much if at all. But Hull dialect speech locally tended to be looked down on as rough, emotional, extreme, uncultured. ' How are the bains?' wd be regarded as warm, familiar, naive and unsophisticated as compared with ' How are the children?'. ' How are the kids ?' as American slang.

  35. As someone from Northern England, and those whose native dialect is closer to Scots than Standard English, I'd say that its a similar case to Shtokavian (Serbo-Croat). I think "British" or "Anglo-Scots" would be a better term for the language than "English" due to the language's pluricentric nature that "English" alone cannot fully encompass.

  36. The first thing I was thinking when I heard the word "bairns" was that it reminded me of Swedish, but maybe a bit more on the Swenglish side.

    Child = Barn
    Children = Barn
    The children = Barnen

  37. 6:33 … or maybe Engish is a dialect of Scots or something else or something else or something else… or maybe it is just Scots. Pointless discussion about definitions.

  38. 6:33 … or maybe Engish is a dialect of Scots or something else or something else or something else… or maybe it is just Scots. Pointless discussion about definitions.

  39. If you want to hear "Scottish Gaelic" live,then listen to this radio station! www.bbc.co.uk/radionangaidheal What other languages does it sound like? (apart fom "Irish Gaelic" obviously).

  40. The difference between standard English and Scots is of about the same magnitude as the difference between Croatian and Serbian.

    Croatian and Serbian are, nowadays, officially regarded as separate languages, because Croatia and Serbia are separate countries (with separate militaries, and in the Croatian case, a navy). However, outside Croatia and Serbia many people still refer to our languages as Serbo-Croatian. If Scotland gains independence from the UK, I reckon Scots will become regarded as a separate language.

    The spoken Croatian and Serbian are mutually completely intelligible: as a Croat I have no trouble having a conversation with a Serb without either of us having to adjust the way we speak (as long as we both speak the standard varieties of our language). I can effortlessly listen to Serbian radio, just like a Serb can effortlessly listen to Croatian radio. On the other hand, I may have trouble understanding some of the more obscure dialects of Croatian, even though those are dialects of my native language.

    While they are very similar, there still exist many small differences between Croatian and Serbian: in vocabulary, grammar, orthography, and accent. For example, I can never pass for a Serb because of my Croatian accent, and most Serbs, unless they have been living in Croatia for many years, cannot pass for Croatians. The major difference between the two languages is that Croatian uses the Latin script exclusively, while Serbian commonly uses the Cyrillic script. Most Serbs know the Latin script just as well as they know Cyrillic and use it often, especially online and in advertising (for example, when a brand wants to look "Western"). However, Croatians born after 1985 have not been taught Cyrillic at school and will have difficulties reading Serbian in Cyrillic, especially the cursive.

  41. As someone from Scotland I found this video really interesting. I come from Fife which is on the mid-east of Scotland. We use some of these phrases like "A went wi ma wee brother" but we always spell them in proper English when writing. We usually consider this an accent as most of Scotland doesn't speak like that but its still interesting to hear only Scots in a sentence with no other English

  42. This is just completely nuking the fuck out of English. This is all English. You can sit there and spell out the literal sounds of every word, all you want, but "soh kan ei"…That doesn't make it a new or separate language.

  43. i have lived in nothern Ireland my whole life and i have never had a problem with speaking to any Scotts

  44. I know very little of the Scots and English controversy, but I do know that when my two little daughters travelled to Scotland with their mother (I don't remember which city, probably one of the large ones), upon hearing the taxi driver ask them them their destination, their mother reports that they laughed and giggled at him. My dear children went to another man's country and laughed at him because of his way of speaking!

  45. Scots is a dialect of English as it's used far too interchangeably within normal English speaking to considered a thing on its own. Plus the fact it's completely intelligible to a large proportional of standard English speakers

  46. Why is Scots (rightly) called a dialect of English but Scottish Gaelic is often not called a dialect of Irish Gaelic?

  47. Think you for a very interesting channel. My native language is Swedish. It is very interesting to discover that in almost all of your examples where Scots use another word than English, I recognise the word. E.g. moss instead of marsh.

  48. I don’t think it’s ‘bad English’ nor inferior to Standard English otherwise, but I do think it’s more like a dialect or unique way of speaking in English that is endemic to that area of Scotland, personally.

    No Pidgin or Creole or less dominant language is inferior either, for that matter. They are all rule governed and have a community that speaks it successfully to one another, therefore they are all then completely valid and just fine.

  49. Wow so Edinburgh and Glasgow were part of England up till the 11th century? Never knew this

  50. All this rhyming 'wrath' with 'hath' has upset me, such that I have been at the sauce with a view to getting full (as a goog).

  51. Langfocus: As usual it’s a well balanced report. My sister married a Scottish man, and for the first few months she had to “translate” for us from Fife Scots into Sussex English. His accent slowly shifted to become more understandable as time went by. I missed some more detail about the etymology of the Scottish nouns, like Kirk and Bairn. I guess Norse origin? Any Scottish words that came from Gaelic?

  52. I can vaguely get the meaning in a Scots sentence but it's impossible to fully comprehend it.

  53. Depends on where you are in Scotland as to whether a child is a wean or a bairn. Braw video laddie….

  54. There are five conditions to consider two linguistic varieties as two different languages and not as dialect and language: 1. standarised grammar, 2 dictionary, 3 literature, 4 a certain degree of bidirectional not mutual understanding and 5 will of both communities to consider two different languages. I think Scots does not already complies with these five conditions.

  55. So the Trainspotting book is an established Scottish English language? I thought that was just Irvine Welsh being weird, and felt like writing the accent in, just to be different. I still haven't finished that book yet. I find it a hard read.

  56. I don't speak Scots, but I'd say it is a language. Calling Scots a dialect of English is like calling Dutch a dialect of German.

  57. Very enlightening. Thank you. I'm glad I watched this before I made more errors believing Scots spoke English in the same style I am accustomed to hearing (in the US).

  58. I always thought the difference between accents, dialects and languages was a difference in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar respectively.

  59. *I realise this video is 2 years old **but the west cost dont say bairns they say weans, bairn is an east and north thing x

  60. Can I congratulate you on your correct pronunciation of Burgh. its the first time I heard a north American say it correctly.

  61. Scott's is a dialect try to communicate without using English see how far you get. Is this clickbait or something do you realise that a word is spelt the same no matter what accent its said in

  62. Canadian English still pronounces the "ou" in "about" the original French long-u way, as in French "bouquet." In Standard English the "au" pronunciation of the "ou" in "house" derived from this great vowel shift, after scribes had changed the French dipthong spelling to the
    "ou" in "house," after its earlier long-u pronunciation and spelling as "hus," as in "huswif" and "huswifery." And Modern German long-u "Kuh" for "cow" preserves this older Germanic vowel sound.

  63. Canadian English still pronounces the "ou" in "about" the original French long-u way, as in French "bouquet." In Standard English the "au" pronunciation of the "ou" in "house" derived from this great vowel shift, after scribes had changed the French dipthong spelling to the
    "ou" in "house," after its earlier long-u pronunciation and spelling as "hus," as in "huswif" and "huswifery." And Modern German long-u "Kuh" for "cow" preserves this older Germanic vowel sound.

  64. The inability of Langfocus to highlight the exact verbal meaing of the written words 'nae' (scots) and 'nay' is a bit disappointing. Cannae might look odd as a word, but 'can' is exactly the same and the negative 'not' has been replaced with the very familiar 'nay'.

    Also the much mentioned word in the comments…weans. Wee is another word for small that all English people would recognise, and 'ans' meaning ones, is very similar to what is spoken throughout England (uns, ens, ans). Young'uns (ans, ens) is common in the whole of England and much closer to weans than bairns.

  65. Loved this. I Learned poem off by heart & answered a question on it in my O Grade English (?!) exam many years ago. I'd say, "Whaur sits oor sulky, sullen dame…

  66. I never even knew Scots was a "language/dialect" but hey I understood everything they were saying, time to add it to my resume for languages I can speak

  67. I heard a silly song about "ya cannae throw your granny from a bus" and I was unfamiliar with the word "cannae". Now I know it must be a Scottish thing…(but why anyone would write a song about such things still puzzles me!) I learned a lot here. Your channel is informative, fascinating, and very well-done. I really appreciate it. Thank you!👍

  68. As an American English speaker with no relation to Scotland, I can say that the poem by Robert Burns was easier for me to understand then a Shakespeare poem.

  69. I went to school with the only Australian born one of a large Scottish family. My father often said that my friend's parents spoke Gaelic, but I've come to think they spoke Scots. Apart from a little vocabulary, so I leaned both 'bairn' & 'wean', it was generally intelligble to my teenage Aussie ear, with only a little effort. I don't think I'd manage understanding Gaelic. It only occurred to me many years later, that I would have been equally difficult for them to understand.

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